Advertisement

Optokinetic Nistagmus and Visuo-vestibular Interaction in Whiplash Injuries

  • A. Salami
  • M. C. Medicina
  • M. Dellepiane
Conference paper

Abstract

The studies regarding cervical whiplash injury [12, 26, 28] showed that, in man, alterations can occur either in bands, muscles and neck vessels or — in very serious cases — in the CNS, cervical spine, brain stem, cerebellum, motor ocular system, as a consequence of the trauma [9, 15, 20, 36, 32], even without any bone lesions, which are seldom proved anyhow [22, 28]. These observations were confirmed by researches who showed the existence of various types of cerebral lesions (contusion, subdural hematoma and subarachnoidal or brain stem hemorrages) after cervical whiplash stress [30, 31].

Keywords

Whiplash Injury Optokinetic Nystagmus Optokinetic Stimulation Vestibular Nystagmus Pathological Subject 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Baloh RW, Jenkins HA, Honrubia V, Yee RD, Law G.Y (1979) Visual-vestibular interaction and patients with cerebellar atrophy. Neurology, Minneapolis, 29:116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boyle R, Pompeiano O (1981) Convergence and interaction of neck and macular vestibular imputs on vestibulospinal neurons. J Neurophysiol 45:852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bon L, Corazza R., Iinchingolo P (1982) Oculomotor velocity efferent copy in the nucleus of the optic tract in the cat pre tectum. Annual General Meeting of the European Brain and Behaviour Society, ParmaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brandt T (1984) Clinical evidence for cervical vertigo? In: Vertigo: its multisensory syndromes. Springer-Verlag, London 281Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carleton SC, Carpenter MB (1984) Distribution of primary vestibular fibers in the brainstem and cerebellum of the monkey. Brain Res 294:281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chester JB (1991) Whiplash, postural control, and the inner ear. Spine 7:716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cojazzi L, Sala O (1947) Sul diverso influsso del nistagmo otticocinetico sul nistagmo calorico in casi di iperreflessia vestibolare. Marginalia Otorinolaryngologica 5:461Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Compere WE (1966) Electronystagmographic findings in patients with “whiplash injuries”. Laryngoscope 78:1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elliott F (1964) Clinical neurology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Filippo P (1949) Considerazioni sulla predominanza unidirezionale del nistagmo termico in alcuni casi otoneurologici. Arch Otol Rinol Laringol 60:235Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gacek RR (1982) The anatomical-physiological basis for vestibular function. In: Honrubia V, Brazier MAB (eds). Nystagmus and vertigo: clinical approaches to the patient with dizziness. AP, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gay JR, Abbott K (1953) Common whiplash injuries of the neck. JAMA 152:1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hasegawa T, Kato I, Harada K, Ikarashi T, Yoshida M, Koike Y (1994) The effect of uvulonodular lesions on horizontal optokinetic nystagmus and optokinetic after nystagmus in cats. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 511:126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Henn V, Young L, Finley C (1974) Vestibular nucleus units in alert monkey are also influenced by moving visual fields. Brain Res 71:144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hildingsson C, Wenngren B, Bring G, Toolenen G (1989) Oculomotor problems after cervical spine injury. Acta Orthop Scand 60:513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hildingsson C, Wenngren B, Toolanen G (1993) Eye motility dysfunction after soft-tissue injury of the cervical spine. Acta Orthop Scand 64:129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hinoki M (1972) Vertigo due to whiplash injury from the standpoint of neurootology. In: Itemi K (ed) Whiplash injury. Tokyo, Kanehara, Shuppan 100Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hinoki M (1985) Vertigo due to whisplash injury: a neurotological approach. Acta Otolaryngol, Stockh [Suppl] 419:9Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hinoki M, Hine S, Tada Y (1971) Neurotological studies on vertigo due to whiplash injury. Equil Res [Suppl 1]:5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ikeda K, Kobayashi T (1967) Mechanisms and origin of so-called whiplash inury. Clin Surg 22:1655Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kano MS, Kano M, Maekawa K (1990) Receptive field organisation of climbing fiber afferents responding to optokinetic stimulation in the cerebellar nodulus and flocculus of the pigmented rabbit. Ex Brain Res 82:499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jongkees LB (1993)Whiplash examination. Laryngoscope 93:113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Miles FA, Fuller JH (1974) Visual tracking and the primate flocculus. Science 189:1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Miura Y (1968) Functional disorders of the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord due to experimental whiplash injury. 27th Annual Meeting of the Jap Neurosurg Soc. Cited by Hinoki M (1985) Vertigo due whiplash injury: a neurotological approach. Acta Otolaringol, Stock [Suppl 419]:9Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miura Y, Tanaka M (1970) Disturbance of the venous system in the head and neck regions in rabbit with whiplash injury. Brain and nerve injury, Tokyo, 2:217Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    McNab I (1982) Acceleration extension injuries of the cervical spine. The spine, vol II. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 515Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nagao S (1983) Effects of vestibulocerebellar lesions upon dynamic charateristics and adaptation of vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic responses in pigmented rabbits. Exp Brain Res 53:498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Norris SH, Watti I (1983) The prognosis of neck injuries resulting from rear-end vehicle collision. J Bone and Joint Surg 65 B[5]:609Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Odkvist L, Allund M, Ledin T, Noakssonn L, Deblen J, Moller C (1994) Otoneurological disturbances in whiplash injuries (manuscript)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ommaya AK, Fass F, Yarnell P (1968) Whiplash injury and brain damage: an experimental study. JAMA 204:285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ommaya AK, Hirsch AE (1971) Tolerances for cerebral concussion from head impact and whiplash in primates. J Biomech 4:13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Oosterveld WJ, Kortschot HW, Kingma GG, De Jong HAA, Saatci MR (1991) Electronystagmographic findings following cervical whiplash injuries. Acta Otolaryngol, Stockh, 111:201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pfaltz CR, Bohmer A (1981) The influence of the pursuit and optokinetic system upon vestibular responses in man. Acta Oto-Laryng, Stockh, 91:515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Precht W, Volkind R, Maeda M, Giretti M (1976) The effects of stimulating the cerebellar nodulus in the cat on the response of vestibular neurons. Neuroscience 1:301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Precht W, Strata P (1980) On the pathway mediating optokinetic responses in vestibular nuclear neurons. Neuroscience 5:777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rowe M, Carlson C (1980) Brain stem auditory evoked potentials in postconcussion dizziness. Arch Neurol 37:679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Salami A, Taborelli G (1984) II nistagmo otticocinetico in camera ruotante. IV Giornata Italiana di Nistagmografia Clinica. Fisiopatologia del sistema vestibulo-visuo-oculomotore. Nistagmo otticocinetico. Movimenti di inseguimento. Movi-menti saccadici. A cura di Dufour A, S. Vincent (AO)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Salami A, Filippi P, Mora E (1987) II comportamento del nistagmo ottico-cinetico e del nistagmo d’interazione ottico-vestibolare nella patologia della fossa posteriore. VII Giornata Italiana di Nistagmografia Clinica. Terapia chirurgica della vertigine: indicazioni, limiti, prospettive. E.N.G. e patologia della fossa posteriore. A cura di Dufour A, Terme di Chianciano (SI)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Salami A, Bavazzano M, Tinelli E, Dellepiane M (1987) II gain del nistagmo otticocinetico. Otorinolaringologia 37[2]:137Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Salami A, Filippi P, Jankowska B (1988) II comportamento del nistagmo otticocinetico e del nistagmo d’interazione ottico-vestibolare nella patologia degenerativa della fossa posteriore. VIII Giornata Italiana di Nistagmografia Clinica. E.N.G. e patologia degenerativa tronco-cerebellare. Farmacologia sperimentale della vertigine. A cura di Dufour A, Montecatini Terme (PT)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schuknecht HF, Neff WD, Perlman HB (1951) Experimental study of auditory damage following blows to the head. Ann Otol 60:273Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Simpsom J, Alley K (1974) Visual climbing fiber input to rabbit vestibulo-cer-ebellum: a source of direction-specific information. Brain Res 82:302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Toglia JU (1976) Acute flexion-extension injury of the neck. Electronystagmographic study of 309 patients. Neurology 26:808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Toglia JU, Rosenberg PE, Ronis ML (1970) Posttraumatic dizziness. Vestibular, audiological and medicolegal aspects. Arch Otolaryngol 92:485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Waespe W, Henn V (1977) Neuronal activity in the vestibular nuclei of the alert monkey during vestibular and optokinetic stimulation. Exp Brain Res 27:523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Waespe W., Cohen B, Raphan T (1984) Dynamic modification of the vestibulo-ocular reflex by the nodulus and uvula. Science 228:199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wennmo C, Hindfelt B, Pyykko I (1983) Eye movements in cerebellar and combined cerebello-brainstem diseases. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 92:165PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Salami
    • 1
  • M. C. Medicina
    • 1
  • M. Dellepiane
    • 1
  1. 1.Cattedra ORLOspedale Regionale S. MartinoGenovaItaly

Personalised recommendations