Chronotropic Incompetence: How to Diagnose and Treat It?

  • E. Adornato
  • E. M. F. Adornato


During dynamic exercise the acceleration of ventricular rate, due to vagal withdrawal, is the most important contribution for increasing cardiac output according to the metabolic needs. The inability to adequately increase the heart rate in response to exercise is defined Atrial Chronotropic Incompetence (ACI).


Heart Rate Response Sinus Node Sick Sinus Syndrome Sinus Node Dysfunction Chronotropic Response 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Adornato
    • 1
  • E. M. F. Adornato
    • 2
  1. 1.Divisione di Cardiologia, Ospedali RiunitiAzienda Ospedaliera “Bianchi-MelacrinoMorelli”Reggio CalabriaItaly
  2. 2.Istituto Pluridisciplinare di Clinica Medica IUniversità di MessinaItaly

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