How to Set Up Acute Pain Services

  • N. Rawal
  • R. Allvin
  • C. Zetterberg
Conference paper


Recent years have seen the development of new analgesic drugs and sophisticated drug delivery systems. Pain management modalities such as patient controlled analgesia (PCA), epidural analgesia with opioids and/or local anaesthetic drugs and regional blocks are being increasingly used. However, in general the obstacles to bringing research to the bedside have not been overcome. The most common technique for providing postoperative analgesia has been and still is the use of i.m. opioids prescribed by surgeons and administered by ward nurses on an as-needed basis. The inadequacies of this method of pain management are well recognized.


Visual Analogue Scale Postoperative Pain Pain Management Epidural Analgesia Postoperative Pain Relief 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Rawal
  • R. Allvin
  • C. Zetterberg

There are no affiliations available

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