Inflammatory Cells in Septic Shock

  • H. Zhang
  • C. Hsia
  • G. Porro
Conference paper


Septic shock is a complex pathophysiological syndrome, initiated by microbial products, and associated with a systemic activation of inflammatory responses, which can lead to multiple organ failure and the suppression of immune responses. The effector cells play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of this complex condition. For example, macrophages are a principal source of the key mediators of septic shock that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and chemokines like macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Whereas optimal levels of these cytokines and chemokines are important for a sufficient defense, at gradually higher concentrations they mediate stronger local and finally systemic responses, with predominantly destructive rather than protective effects on the host. Macrophage release chemokines that attract neutrophils (PMNs). The letter effector cells play a central role in some of these responses by accumulating in tissues and releasing reactive oxygen species, cytokines and proteases that injure host structures. To block the deleterious effects of these mediators, an anti-body strategy in the treatment of sepsis may be not practical because that sepsis is involved in an inflammatory cascade in which mediators interact each other, so that neutralization of a single inflammatory molecule may be not sufficient to shape the overall inflammatory response.


Septic Shock Lung Injury Alveolar Macrophage Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Human Lung Epithelial Cell 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Zhang
  • C. Hsia
  • G. Porro

There are no affiliations available

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