Techniques of continuous or intermittent analgesia

  • G. Ivani
  • P. De Negri
Part of the Topics in Anaesthesia and Critical Care book series (TIACC)


The International Association for the Study of Pain defined pain as “an unpleasant and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage... pain is always subjective. Each individual learns the application of the word through experiences related to injury in early life” [1]. In this form the definiton of pain cannot be applied to living organisms (newborn, infants, small children) incapable of self-report. Consequences of this definition are evident in the clinical care given to neonates and small children: in fact the distress experienced by infants undergoing injuries as a part of medical care is often neglected and undertreated if compared to older children or adults. The hypothesis that the later in gestation the neonate is born the more pain they experience contrasts with neurophysiological evidence, indicating that the ability to experience pain comes early in fetal development [2]. As facial responses and body movements seem to provide the best information about pain sensations [3], what appears to be deficient are the motor mechanisms needed to communicate distress to observers. Moreover, as only recently are preterm babies more likely to survive, the capacity to communicate distress has not yet completely evolved. During the course of a hospital stay, children may experience pain from a variety of sources; pain is often severe in the postoperative period.


Postoperative Pain Postoperative Analgesia Ketorolac Tromethamine Rectal Route Background Infusion 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Ivani
  • P. De Negri

There are no affiliations available

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