Advertisement

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infections in Children

  • G. L. Biscione
  • S. L. Johnston

Abstract

There has been considerable recent interest in the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) infection in both adults and children. The major interest with regard to children relates to its role in causing atypical pneumonia, and its possible role in the pathogenesis of bronchial, asthma. The prevalence of childhood asthma and other wheezing disorders has increased over the past few decades in most parts of the world [1]. This illness causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children, and their management is associated with increasing healthcare costs [2]. The etiology of asthma is complex, involving interactions between genetic susceptibility, allergen exposure and external aggravating factors such as air pollution, smoking and respiratory infections. The nature of the relationship between viral and bacterial infections in early childhood and the development of recurrent wheezing is controversial. The relationships between wheezing, coughing and respiratory distress and age, gender, atopy, viral infections, congenital structural abnormalities and baseline lung function (airway mechanics and hyperresponsiveness) are also dynamic and complex [3].

Keywords

Childhood Asthma Asthma Exacerbation Chlamydial Infection Atypical Pneumonia Chlamydia Pneumoniae 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hahn DL (1996) Intracellular pathogens and their role in asthma: Chlamydia pneumoniae in adult patients. Eur Respir Rev 6: 38, 224–230Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pedersen S, Silverman M, Martinez F (1998) Early intervention in childhood asthma. Eur Respir J 12: 1–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Martinez FD, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Holberg CJ, Halonen M, Morgan WJ (1995) Asthma and wheezing in the first six years of life. The Group Health Medical Associates. N Engl J Med 332: 133–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pattemore PK, Johnston SL, Bardin PG (1992) Viruses as precipitants of asthma symptoms. I. Epidemiology. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 325–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johnston SL, Pattemore PK, Sanderson G, Smith S, Lampe F, Josephs L, Symington P, O’Toole S, Myint SH, Tyrrell DAJ, Holgate ST (1995) Community study of role of viral infections in exacerbations of asthma in 9–11 year old children. 310: 1225–1228Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nicholson KG, Kent J, Ireland DC (1993) Respiratory viruses and exacerbations of asthma in adults. BMJ 307: 982–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kraft M, Cassell GH, Henson JE, Watson H, Williamson J, Marmion BP, Gaydos CA, Martin RJ (1998) Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the airways of adults with chronic asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158: 998–1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grayston JT (1989) Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR. Chest 95: 664–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blasi F, Legnani D, Lombardo VM (1993) Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in acute exacerbations of COPD. Eur Respir J 6: 19–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Saikku P, Leinonen M, Mattila M, Ekman P, Nieminen MS, Makela PH, Huttunen JK, Valtonen V (1988) Serological evidence of an association of a novel Chlamydia, TWAR, with coronary heart disease and acute mycardial infarction. Lancet ii: 983–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hahn DL, Dodge RW, Golubjatnikov R (1991) Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR, infection with wheezing, asthmatic bronchitis and adult onset asthma. JAMA 226: 225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thomas B, Taylor-Robinson D (1996) Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. In: Mynt S, Taylor-Robinson D (eds) Viral and other infections of the human respiratory tract. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 341–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hyman CL, Augenbraun, MH, Roblin PM, Schachter J, Hammerschlag MR (1991) Asymptomatic respiratory tract infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae TWAR. J Clin Microbiol 29: 2082–2083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Block S, Hedrick J, Hammerschlag MR, Cassel GH, Craft JC (1995) Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: comparative efficacy and safety of clarithromycin vs. erythromycin ethylsuccinate. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14: 471–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Einarsson S, Sigurdsson HK, Magnusdottir SD, Eriendsdottir H, Briem H, Gudmundson S (1994) Age specific prevalence of antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae in Iceland. Scand J Infect Dis 26: 393–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kese D, Hren-vencelj H, Socan M, Beovic B, Cizman M (1994) Prevalence of of antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in Slovenia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 13: 523–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saikku P (1994) Diagnosis of acute and chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. In: Orfila J, Byrne GI, Chernesky MA et al (eds) Chlamydial infections. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Human Chlamydial Infections, Chantilly, pp 163-72Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Emre U, Roblin PM, Gelling M Dumornay W, Rao M, Hammerschlag MR, Schachter J (1994) The association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and reactive airway disease in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 148: 727–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bourke SJ (1993) Chlamydial respiratory infections. BMJ 306: 1219–1220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ozanne G, Lefebvre J (1992) Specificity of the microimmunofluorescence assay for the serodiagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. Can J Microbiol 38: 1185–1189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Saiki RK, Scharf S, Faloona F, Mullis KB, Horn GT, Erlich HA, Armheim N (1985) Enzymatic amplification of B-globulin genomic sequences and restriction site analysis for the diagnosis of sickle-cell anemia. Science 230: 1350–1354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gaydos CA, Quinn TC, Eiden JJ (1992) Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae by DNA amplification of the 16s RNA gene. Clin Microbiol 30: 796–800Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Campbell LA, Perez Melgosa M, Kuo C-C, Grayston JT (1992) Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 30: 434–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Johnston SL, Cunningham A, Ward M (1993) The polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in clinical samples. Am Rev Respir Dis 147: A573Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Normann E, Gnarpe J, Gnarpe H, Wettergren B (1998) Chlamydia pneumoniae in children with acute respiratory tract infections. Acta Paediatr 87: 23–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jantos CA, Wienpahl B, Schiefer HG, Wagner F, Hegemann JH (1995) Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in infants and children with acute lower respiratory tract disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14: 117–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cunningham AF, Johnston SL, Julious SA, Lampe FC, Ward ME (1998) Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and asthma exacerbations in children. Eur Respir J 11: 345–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Biscione GL, Xie P, Johnson A-W BR, Johnston SL (1998) Prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in children admitted to hospital with acute respiratory illness using PCR. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 137: A23Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roblin PM, Hammerschlag MR (1998) Microbiological efficacy of azithromicin and susceptibilities to azithromicin of isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae from adults and children with community-acquired pneumonia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42: 194–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Johnston SL (1997) Influence of viral and bacterial respiratory infections on exacerbations and symptom severity in childhood asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl 16: 88–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ward ME (1997) Chlamydia host and host cell interactions. In: McCrae MA, Saunders JR, Smyth CJ, Stow ND (eds) Molecular aspects of host-pathogen interaction. Society for General Microbiology Symposium 55. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Emre U, Sokolovskaya N, Roblin PM, Schachter J, Hammerschlag MR (1995) Detection of anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgE in children with reactive airway disease. J Infect Dis 172: 265–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cunningham AF, Johnston SL, Ward ME (1999) Hep-2 epithelial-like cells secrete interleukin-8 in response to infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. FASEB Lett (submitted)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. L. Biscione
  • S. L. Johnston

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations