The Problem of Fever in ICU Patients

  • V. Emmi
  • F. Capra Marzani
Conference paper


Fever is a complex, coordinated autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral response that is adaptive and is used by nearly all vertebrates as part of the acutephase reaction to immune challenge [1].


Nosocomial Infection Acalculous Cholecystitis Maxillary Sinusitis Drug Fever Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bernheim HA, Block LH, Atkins E (1979) Fever: pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and purpose. Ann Intern Med 91: 261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chandrasekar PH, Kruse JA, Mathews MF (1986) Nosocomial infection among patients in different types of intensive care units at a city hospital. Crit Care Med 14: 508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clarke DE, Kimelman J, Raffin TA (1991) The evaluation of fever in the intensive care unit. Chest 100: 213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Craven DE, Kunches LM, Lichtenberg DA et al (1988) Nosocomial infection and fatality in medical and surgical intensive care unit patients. Arch Intern Med 148: 1161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daschner F (1985) Nosocomial infections in intensive care units. Intensive Care Med 11: 284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Donowitz LG, Wenzel RP, Hoyt JW (1982) High risk of hospital-acquired infections in the ICU patients. Crit Care Med 10: 355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wenzel RP, Osterman CA, Donowitz LG et al (1981) Identification of procedure-related nosocomial infections in high-risk patients. Rev Infect Dis 3: 701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arbo MJ, Fine MJ, Hanusa BH et al (1993) Fever of nosocomial origin: Etiology, risk factors, and outcomes. Am J Med 95: 505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Filice GAS, Weiler MD, Hughes RA et al (1989) Nosocomial febrile illnesses in patients on an internal medicine service. Arch Intern Med 149: 319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McGowan JE, Rose RC, Jacobs NF et al (1987) Fever in hospitalized patients. Am J Med 82: 580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Simon HB (1993) Hyperthermia. New Engl J Med 329: 483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dinarello CA (1991) Endogenous pyrogens: the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of the fever. In: Mackowiack PA (ed) Fever: basic mechanisms and management. Raven Press, New York, 23Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saper CB, Breder CD (1994) The neurologic basis of fever. New Engl J Med 330: 1880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dinarello CA (1988) Endogenous pyrogens. Methods Enzymol 163: 495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dinarello CA, Cannon JG (1988) New concepts on the pathogenesis of fever. Rev Intect Dis 10: 168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Norwood S (1992) An approach to the febrile ICU patient. In: Civetta JM, Taylor RW, Kirby RR (eds) Critical care, 2nd edn. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, p 983Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lively JC, Pruitt BA (1990) Infection-related complications. In: Greenfield IJ (ed) Complications in surgery and trauma, 2nd edn. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia, p 81Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cunha BA, Digamon-Beltran B, Gobbo PN (1984) Implication of fever in the critical care setting. Heart Lung 13: 460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cunha BA (1987) Approach to the patient with fever. In: Samiy AH (ed) Textbook of diagnostic medicine. Lea&Febiger, pp 132-155Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meduri GU, Mauldin GL, Wunderink RG (1994) Causes of fever and pulmonary densities in patients with clinical manifestations of ventilator-associated-pneumonia. Chest 106: 221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Garibaldi RA, Brodine S, Matsumiya S et al (1985) Evidence for the noninfectious etiology of early postoperative fever. Infect Control 6: 273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cunha BA (1989) Postoperative fever: A diagnostic approach. Intern Med 10: 161Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gerzof SG, Oates ME (1988) Imaging techniques for infections in the surgical patients. Surg Clin North Am 68: 147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saini S, Kellum JM, O’Leary MP (1983) Improved localization and survival in patients with intra-abdominal abscesses. Am J Surg 145: 136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Norwood SH, Civetta JM (1985) Abdominal CT scanning in critically ill surgical patients. Ann Surg 202: 166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Thaker ML, Lavender JP, Arnot RN (1977) Indium-111 labeled autologous leukocytes in man. JNuclMed 18: 1040Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gagliardi PD, Hoffer PB, Rosenfield AT (1988) Correlative imaging in abdominal infections: an algorithmic approach using nuclear medicine, ultrasound, and computed tomography. Semin Nucl Med 18: 320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sinanan M, Maier R, Carrico J (1984) Laparotomy for intra-abdominal sepsis in patients in an intensive care unit. Arch Surg 119: 652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Quintiliani R, Cunha BA, Klimek J et al (1978) Bacteremia after manipulation of urinary tract. The importance of pre-existing urinary tract disease and compromised host defences. Postgrad Med J 54: 669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Holzapfel L, Chevret S, Madinier G et al (1993) Influence of long-term oro-or naso-tracheal intubation on nosocomial maxillary sinusitis and pneumonia. Crit Care Med 21: 1132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Borman KR, Brown PM, Mezer KK et al (1992) Occult fever in surgical intensive care unit patients is seldom caused by sinusitis. Am J Surg 164: 412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cunha BA (1994) Intensive care, not intensive antibiotics. Hearth Lung 23: 361Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    McGowan JE (1983) Antimicrobial resistance in hospital organisms and its relation to antimicrobial use. Rev Infect Dis 5: 1033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cunha BA (1988) Fever in the neurosurgical patient. Hearth Lung 17: 608Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Murray HW, Ellis GC, Blumenthal DS et al (1979) Fever and pulmonary thromboembolism. Am J Med 67: 232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Briant LR, Mobin-Uddin K, Dillon ML et al (1973) Misdiagnosis of pneumonia in patients needing mechanical respiration. Arch Surg 106: 286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Joshi M, Ciesla N, Caplan E (1988) Diagnosis of pneumonia in critically ill patients (abstr.) Chest 94: 4SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meduri GU, Belenchia JM, Estes RJ et al (1991) Fibroproliferative phase of ARDS: clinical findings and effects of corticosteroids. Chest 100: 943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bamberger DM, Gurley MB (1994) Microbial etiology and clinical characteristics of distributive shock. Clin Infect Dis 18: 726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Parrillo JE (1991) Shock. In: Wilson JD, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ et al (eds) Harrison’s principle of internal medicine, 12th edn, vol. 1. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 237Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rupp ME, Archer GL (1994) Coagulase-negative staphylococci: pathogens associated with medical progress. Clin Infect Dis 19: 231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cunha BA (1986) Drug fever. Postgrad Med 80: 123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mackowiak PA, LeMaistre CF (1987) Drug fever: A critical appraisal of conventional concepts. Ann Intern Med 106: 728PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Emmi
  • F. Capra Marzani

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations