Partitioning of lung responses into airway and tissue components

  • M. S. Ludwig
Part of the Topics in Anaesthesia and Critical Care book series (TIACC)


This chapter deals with the role of the lung parenchyma in contributing to the contractile response of the overall lung during induced constriction. Addressing the contribution of the parenchyma has been made easier in recent years because of the development of the alveolar capsule technique which permits direct measurement of alveolar pressure [1]. Resistive losses across the lung can, thereby, be partitioned into a component due to airway resistance (Raw) and a component due to tissue resistance (Rti). Similarly, resistance changes during induced constriction can be apportioned into the component related to changes in airway calibre and the component related to alterations in tissue mechanical behaviour. Recent studies in a number of different animal species have shown that much of the resistive pressure drop across the lung under baseline conditions is due to the resistive pressure drop at the level of the lung tissues [2-6]. Furthermore, numerous animal studies have now shown that increases in lung resistance (RL) during exogenous or endogenous constriction are due, in large part, to changes in tissue resistance [2, 5-10]. Traditionally, changes in lung resistance with induced constriction were thought to be due to changes in airway calibre. However, if increases in tissue resistance account for a large part of the increase in lung resistance, then the pathophysiology of diseases such as asthma needs to be reconsidered.


Vagal Stimulation Tissue Resistance Alveolar Pressure Late Asthmatic Response Lung Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fredberg JJ, Keefe DH, Glass GM, Castile RG, Frantz III ID (1984) Alveolar pressure nonhomogeneity during small-amplitude high-frequency oscillation. J Appl Physiol 57:788–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ludwig MS, Dreshaj I, Solway J, Munoz A, Ingram Jr RH (1987) Partitioning of pulmonary resistance during constriction in the dog: effects of volume history. J Appl Physiol 62:807–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brusasco V, Warner DO, Beck KG, Rodarte JR, Rehder K (1989) Partitioning of pulmonary resistance in dogs: effect of tidal volume and frequency. J Appl Physiol 66:1190–1196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warner DO, Vettermann J, Brusasco V, Rehder K (1989) Pulmonary resistance during halothane anesthesia is not determined only by airway caliber. Anesthesiology 70:453–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Romero PV, Ludwig MS (1991) Maximal methacholine-induced constriction in rabbit lung: interactions between airways and tissue? J Appl Physiol 70:1044–1050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nagase T, Ito T, Yanai M, Martin JG, Ludwig MS (1993) Responsiveness of and interactions between airways and tissue in guinea pigs during induced constriction. J Appl Physiol 74:2848–2854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sly PD, Lanteri GJ (1991) Partitioning of pulmonary responses to inhaled metha- choline in puppies. J Appl Physiol 71:886–891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Martins MA, Dolhkinoff M, Zin WA, Saldiva PHN (1993) Airway and pulmonary tissue responses to capsaicin in guinea pigs assessed with the alveolar capsule technique. Am Rev Respir Dis 147:466–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nagase T, Moretto A, Dallaire MJ, Eidelman DH, Martin JG, Ludwig MS (1994) Airway and tissue responses to antigen challenge in sensitized Brown Norway rats. Am J Respir Grit Gare Med 150:218–226Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nagase T, Dallaire MJ, Ludwig MS (1994) Airway and tissue responses during hyp- nea-induced constriction in guinea pigs. Am J Respir Grit Gare Med 149:1342–1347Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bayliss LE, Robertson GW (1939) The viscoelastic properties of the lungs. Q J Exp Physiol 29:27–47Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hildebrandt J (1969) Dyamic properties of air-filled excised cat lung determined by liquid Plethysmograph. J Appl Physiol 27:246–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bachofen H, Hidebrandt J (1971) Area analysis of pressure-volume hysteresis in mammalian lung. J Appl Physiol 30:493–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bachofen H, Hildebrandt J, Bachofen M (1970) Pressure-volume curves of air- and liquid-filled excised lungs - Surface tension in situ. J Appl Physiol 29:422–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marshall R, Dubois AB (1956) The measurement of the viscous resistance of the lung tissues in normal man. Glin Sci 15:161–170Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Loring SH, Drazen JM, Smith JG, Hoppin Jr FG (1981) Vagal stimulation and aerosol histamine increase hysteresis of lung recoil. J Appl Physiol 51:477–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Takashima T, Ishikawa T, Sasaki T, Nakamura T (1971) Measurement of collateral flow at quasialveolar levels in excised dog lung. Tohuku J Exp Med 105:405–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fredberg JJ, Ingram Jr RH, Gastile RG, Glass GM, Drazen JM (1985) Nonhomogeneity of lung response to inhaled histamine assessed with alveolar capsules. J Appl Physiol 58:1914–1922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bates JHT, Ludwig MS, Sly PD, Brown K, Martin JG, Fredberg JJ (1988) Interrupter resistance elucidated by alveolar pressure measurement in openchested normal dogs. J Appl Physiol 65:408–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lauzon AM, Dechman G, Bates JHT (1995) On the use of alveolar capsule technique to study bronchoconstriction. Respir Physiol 99:139–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Romero PV, Robatto FM, Simard S, Ludwig MS (1992) Lung tissue behaviour during methacholine challenge in rabbits in vivo. J Appl Physiol 73:207–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shardonofsky FR, McDonough JM, Grunstein MM (1993) Effects of positive end- expiratory pressure on lung tissue mechanics in rabbits. J Appl Physiol 75:2506–2513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ludwig MS, Romero PV, Bates JHT (1989) A comparison of the dose-response behaviour of canine airways and parenchyma. J Appl Pysiol 67:1220–1225Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sakae RS, Martins MA, Criado PMP, Zin WA, Saldiva PHN (1992) In vivo evaluation of airway and pulmonary tissue response to inhaled methacholine in the rat. J Appl Toxic 12:235–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eidelman DH, Bellofiore S, Martin JG (1988) Late airway response to antigen challenge in sensitized inbred rats. Am Rev Respir Dis 137:1033–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sapienza S, Du T, Eidelman DH, Wang NS, Martin JG (1991) Structural changes in the airways of sensitized Brown Norway rats after antigen challenge. Am Rev Respir Dis 144:423–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ray DW, Hernandez C, Munoz N, Leff AR, Solway J (1988) Bronchoconstriction elici- tated by isocapnic hyperpnea in guinea pigs. J Appl Physiol 65:934–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Verbeken EK, Cauberghs M, Mertens I, Lauweryns JM, Van de Woestijne KP (1992) Tissue and airway impedence of excised normal, senile, and emphysematous lungs. J Appl Physiol 72:2343–2353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Verbeken EK, Cauberghs M, Lauweryns JM, Van de Woestijne KP (1994) Structure and function in fibrosing alveolitis. J Appl Physiol 76:731–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kaczka D, Ingenito EP, Suki B, Lutchen KR (1997) Partitioning airway and lung tissue resistance in humans: effects of bronchoconstriction. J Appl Physiol 82:1531–1541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Peslin R, Duvivier C (1998) Partitioning of airway and respiratory tissue mechanical impedences by body plethysmography. J Appl Physiol 84:553–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kraft M, Djukanovic R, Wilson S, Holgate ST, Martin RJ (1996) Alveolar tissue inflammation in asthma. Am J Respir Grit Care Med 154:1505–1510Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kapanci Y, Assimacopoulos A, Trie C, Zwahlen A, Gabbiani G (1974) “Contractile interstitial cells” in pulmonary alveolar septa: a possible regulator of ventilation/per- fusion ratio. J Cell Biol 60:375–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gil J, Bachofen JGH, Gehr P, Weibel ER (1979) Alveolar volume-surface area relation in air- and saline-filled lungs fixed by vascular perfusion. J Appl Physiol 47:990–1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lai J, Rogers RA, Ekstein BA, Fredberg JJ (1994) Dynamic changes in alveolar duct geometry in response to 10 M histamine. Am J Respir Grit Care Med 149:A539Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mitzner W, Blosser S, Yager S, Wagner E (1992) Effect of bronchial smooth muscle contraction on compliance. J Appl Physiol 72:158–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mead J, Takishima T, Leith D (1970) Stress distribution in lungs: a model of pulmonary elasticity J Appl Physiol 28:596–608Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bull HB (1957) Protein structure and elasticity In: Remington JW (ed) Tissue elasticity. Waverly Press, Washington, pp 33–42Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Erjefah I, Greiff L, Alkner U, Persson CGA (1993) Allergen-induced biphasic plasma exudation responses in guinea pig large airways. Am Rev Respir Dis 148:695–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schurch S, Bachofen H, Goerke J, Green F (1992) Surface properties of rat pulmonary surfactant studied with the captive bubble method: adsorption, hysteresis, stability. Biochim Biophys Acta 1103:127–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Smaldone GC, Mitzner W, Itoh H (1983) Role of alveolar recruitment in lung inflammation: influence on pressure-volume hysteresis. J Appl Physiol 55:1321–1332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lutchen KR, Hantos Z, Petak F, Adamicza A, Suki B (1996) Airway inhomogeneities contribute to apparent lung tissue mechanics during constriction. J Appl Physiol 80:1841–1849PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. S. Ludwig

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations