Volume, Flow, and Resistance Assessment in Asthma

  • S. Damato


The assessment of lung function in the asthmatic patient has the following main targets:
  1. 1.

    Evaluation of the degree and prevalent location of lung function impairment during symptom-free periods, these being not available in all patients and depending on asthma definition

  2. 2.

    Evaluation of lung function during stable asthma, while the patient is undergoing optimal treatment including protection and/or therapy, on the basis of asthma pathogenesis and patient compliance with all possible indicated therapeutical interventions

  3. 3.

    Evaluation of lung function before and after administration of drugs, mediators, or physical stimuli in order to quantify their possible constrictor, dilatator, or protective effects in asthmatic patients or subjects suspected to be asthmatics

  4. 4.

    Monitoring of lung function during the day and day to day with respect to symptoms and to adjustment of treatment.



Lung Volume Force Vital Capacity Peak Expiratory Flow Forced Expiration Expiratory Reserve Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Afschrift M, Clement J, van de Woestjine KP (1974) Maximum expiratory flows and effort independency in patients with airway obstruction. J Appl Physio137: 566–569Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    ATS Statement (1979) Standardization of spirometry. Am Rev Respir Dis 119: 831–838Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ATS Statement (1987) Standardization of spirometry. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 1285–1298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barter CE, Campbell AH (1973) Comparison of airways resistance measurements during panting and quiet breathing. Respiration 30: 1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barter CE, Campbell AH (1976) Relationship of constitutional factors and cigarette smoking to decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 sec. Am Rev Respir Dis 113: 305–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bedell GN, Marshall R, DuBois AB, Harris JH (1956) Measurement of the volume of gas in the gastrointestinal tract. Values in normal subjects and ambulatory patients. J Clin Invest 35: 336–345Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Black LF, Offord K, Hyatt RE (1974) Variabiliy in the maximal expiratory flow volume curve in asymptomatic smokers and non-smokers. Am Rev Respir Dis 110: 282–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Black KH, Petusevsky ML, Gaensler EA (1980) A general purpose microprocessor for spirometry. Chest 78: 605–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bouhuys A (1963) Pulmonary nitrogen clearance in relation to age in healthy males. J Appl Physiol 18: 297–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bouhuys A, Mitchell CA (1975) Maximum expiratory flow-volume curves. J Appl Physiol 38: 907–912Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boushey HA, Dawson A (1982) Spirometry and flow volume curves. In: Clausen JL (ed) Pulmonary function testing–guidelines and controversies. Academic, New York, pp 61–82Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Briscoe WA, DuBois AB (1958) The relationship between airway resistance, airway conductance and lung volume in subjects of different age and body size. J Clin Invest 37: 1279–1285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brooks SM, Zipp T, Barber M, Carson A (1978). Measurement of maximal expiratory flow rates in cigarette smokers and non-smokers using gases of high and low densities. Am Rev Respir Dis 118: 75–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brown R, Ingram JH Jr, McFadden ER Jr (1978) Problems in the plethysmographic assessment of changes in total lung capacity in asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 118: 685–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brown R, Hoppin FG Jr, Ingram JH Jr, Saunders NA, McFadden E Jr (1978) Influence of abdominal gas on the Boyle’s law determination of thoracic gas volume. J Appl Physiol 44: 469–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Burki NJ, Dent MC (1976) The forced expiratory time as a measure of small airway resistance. Clin Sci Mol Med 51: 53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chinn DJ, Lee WR (1977) Within and between-subject variability of indices from the closing volume and flow volume traces. Bull. Eur Physiopathol Respir 13: 789–802Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chowienczyk PJ, Rees PJ, Payne J, Clark TJK (1981) A new method for computer assisted determination of airways resistance. J Appl Physiol 50: 672678Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chowienczyk PJ, Lawson CP, Lane S, Johnson R, Wilson N, Silverman M, Cochrane GM (1991) A flow interruption device for measurement of airways resistance. Eur Respir J 4: 623–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clausen JL (1982) Pulmonary function testing — Guidelines and controversies. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cockroft DW, Berscheid BA (1983) Measurement of responsiveness to inhaled histamine — comparison of FEVI and sGaw. Ann Allergy 51: 374–377Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cotes JE (1979) Lung function — assessement and application in medicine. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cotes JE, Peslin R, Yernault JC (1983) Standardized lung function testing — chapter 3 (dynamic lung volumes and forced ventilatory flow rates). Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 19 [Suppl 5]: 22–27Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Da Silva AMT, Hamosh P (1973) Effect of smoking a single cigarette on the “small airways.” J Appl Physiol 34: 361–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Desager K, Van Bever H, Làndsér F, Willemen M, De Backer W, Vermeire P (1991) Use of the forced oscillation technique in infants. Eur Respir J 4: 248Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    DuBois AB, Botelho SY, Bedell GN, Marshall R, Comroe JH Jr (1956) A rapid plethysmographic method for measuring thoracic gas volume; a comparison with a nitrogen washout method for measuring functional residual capacity. J Clin Invest 35: 322–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dubois AB, Botelho SY, Comroe JH (1956) A new method for measuring airway resistance in man using a body plethysmograph — values in normal subjects and in patients with respiratory diesease. J Clin Inverst 35: 327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    DuBois AB, Brody AW, Lewis DH, Burgess DF (1956) Oscillation mechanics 122 S. Damato of lungs and chest in man. J Appl Physiol 8: 587–594Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Duvier C, Peslin R, Gallina C (1988) An incremental method to assess linearity of gas flow meters; application to Fleisch pneumotachographs. Eur Respir J 1: 661–665Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eichenhorn MS, Beauchamp RK, Haper PA, Ward IC (1982) An assessment of three portable peak flow meters. Chest 82: 306–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Epstein SW, Fletcher CM, Oppenheimer EA (1969) Daily peak flow measurements in the assessment of steroid therapy for airway obstruction. Br Med J 1: 223–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Feldman J, Traver GA, Taussig LM (1979) Maximal expiratory flows after postural drainage. Am Rev Respir Dis 119: 239–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ferris BG (1978) Epidemiology standardization project. Am Rev Respir Dis 118: 1–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ferris BG, Speizer FE, Bishop Y, Prang G, Weener J (1978) Spirometry for an epidemiologic study — deriving optimum summary statistics for each subject. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 14: 145–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Frank NR, Mead J, Ferris BG (1957) The mechanical behaviour of the lungs in healthy elderly persons. J Clin Invest 36: 1680–1687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fry DL, Hyatt RE (1960) Pulmonary mechanics — a unified analysis of the relationship between pressure, volume and gas flow in the lungs in normal and diseased human subjects. Am J Med 29: 672–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gayrard P, Orehek J, Grimaud C (1975) Bronchoconstrictor effects of a deep inspiration in patients with asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 111: 433–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gelb AF, Molony PA, Klein E, Aronstam PS (1975) Sensitivity of volume of isoflow in the detection of mild airways obstruction. Am Rev Respir Dis 112: 401–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gregg I, Nunn AJ (1973) Peak expiratory flow in normal subjects. Br Med J 3: 282–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Guyatt AR, Siddorn JA, Brash HM, Flenley DC (1975) Reproducibility of dynamic compliance and flow-volume curves in normal man. J Appl Physiol 39: 341–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Habib MP, Engel AL (1978) Influence of panting technique on the plethysmographic measurement of thoracic gas volume. Am Rev Respir Dis 117: 265–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Habib MP, Pare PD, Engel LA (1979) Variability of airways responses to inhaled histamine in normal subjects. J Appl Physiol 47: 51–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hankinson JL, Reger RB, Morgan WKC (1977) Maximal expiratory flows in coal miners. Am Rev Respir Dis 116: 175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Higgins BG, Britton JR, Chinn S, Jones TD, Burney PGI, Tattersfield AE (1988) Relation of methacoline PD20 and peak flow variability measurements to respiratory symptoms in a community population. Am Rev Respir Dis 137 [Suppl 4, 2]: 249Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hogg JC, Macklem PT, Thurbeck WM (1968) Site and nature of airway obstruction in chronic obstructive lung disease. N Engl J Med 278: 1355–1360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hurtado A, Kaltreider NL (1934) Studies of total pulmonary capacity and its subdivisions. VII. Observations during the acute respiratory distress of bronchial asthma and following the administration of epinephrine. J Clin Invest 13: 1054–1062Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hutcheon M, Griffin P, Levison H, Zamel N (1974) Volume of isoflow. A New test in detection of mild abnormalities of lung mechanics. Am Rev Respir Dis 110: 458–465Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Islam MS (1976) Differential diagnosis of ventilatory disorders with the help of volume/flow diagram. Respiration 33: 104–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jaeger MJ, Otis AB (1964) Measurement of airway resistance with a volume displacement body plethysmograph. J Appl Physiol 19: 813–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jaeger MJ, Bouhuys A (1969) Loop formation in pressure vs. flow diagrams obtained by body plethysmographic techniques. Prog. Respir Res 4: 116–130Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jansen JM, Peslin R, Bohadana AB, Racineux JL (1980) Usefulness of forced expiration slope ratios for detecting mild airway abnormalities. Am Rev Respir Dis 122: 221–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kelsen SG, Kelsen DP, Fleegler BF, Jones RC, Rodman T (1978) Emergency room assessment and treatment of patients with acute asthma — adequacy of the conventional approach. Am J Med 64: 622–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Knudson RI, Slatin RC, Lebowitz MD, Burrows B (1976) The maximal expiratory flow-volume curve. Normal standards, variability, and effect of age. Am Rev Respir Dis 113: 587–600Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Knudson RJ, Lebowitz MD (1977) Comparison of flow-volume and closing volume variables in a random population. Am Rev Respir Dis 116: 1039–1045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Knudson RJ, Clark DF, Kennedy TC (1977) Effect of aging alone on mechanical properties of the normal adult human lung. J Appl Physiol 43: 1054–1062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Knudson RJ, Lebowitz MD (1978) Maximal midexpiratory flow (FEF 25–75%) — normal limits and assessment of sensitivity. Am Rev Respir Dis 117: 609–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Làndsér FJ, Nagels J, Demedts M, Billiet L, Van de Woestijne KP (1976) A new method to determine frequency characteristics of the respiratory system. J Appl Physiol 41: 101–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lavelle TF Jr, Rotman HH, Weg JG (1978) Isoflow-volume curves in the diagnosis of upper airway obstruction. Am Rev Respir Dis 117: 845–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Leeder SR, Swan AV, Peat JK, Woolcock AJ, Blaclburn CRB (1977) Maximum expiratory flow-volume curves in children — changes with growth and individual variability. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 13: 249–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Leuallen EC, Fowler WS (1955) Maximal midexpiratory flow. Am Rev Tuberc Pulm Dis 72: 783–800Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Light RW, Conrad SA, Geroge RB (1977) Clinical significance of pulmonary function test. The one best test for evaluating the effects of bronchodilator therapy. Chest 72: 512–516Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Loveland M, Corbin R, Ducis S, Martin RR (1978) Evaluation of the analysis and variability of the helium response. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 14: 551–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Man PSF, Zamel N (1976) Genetic influence on normal variability of maximum expiratory flow-volume curves. J Appl Physiol 41: 874–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mansell AL, Bryan AC, Levison H (1977) Relationship of lung recoil to lung volume and maximum expiratory flow in normal children. J Appl Physio1. 42: 817–823Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Martin J, Powell E, Shore S, Emrich J, Engel LA (1980) The role of the respiratory muscles in the hyperinflation of bronchial asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 121: 441–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    McCall CB, Hyatt RE, Nobel FW (1957) Harmonic content of certain respiratory flow phenomena of normal individuals. J Appl Physiol 10: 215–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    McCarthy DS, Craig DB, Cherniack RM (1975) Intraindividual variability in maximal expiratory flow-volume and closing volume in asymptomatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 112: 407–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    McCarthy DS, Craig DB, Cherniack RM (1976) The effect of acute, intensive cigarette smoking on maximal expiratory flows and the single-breath nitrogen washout trace. Am Rev Respir Dis 113: 301–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McDonald JB, Cole TJ, Seaton A (1975) Forced expiratory time — its reliability as a lung function test. Thorax 30: 554–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    McMichael J (1939) A rapid method of determining lung capacity. Clin Sci 4: 167–173Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mead J (1978) Analysis of the configuration of maximum expiratory flow volume curves. J Appl Physiol 44: 156–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mead J, Whittenberger JL (1953) Physical properties of human lungs measured during spontaneous respiration. J Appl Physiol 5: 779–796Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mead J, Whittenberger JL (1954) Evaluation of airway interruption technique as a method for measuring pulmonary airflow resistance. J Appl Physiol 6:124 S. Damato 408–416Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Melissinos CG, Webster P, Tien YK, Mead J (1979) Time dependence of maximum flow as an index of nonuniform emptying. J Appl Physiol 47: 1043–1050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Milic-Emili J, Mead J, Turner JM (1964) Topography of oesophageal pressure as a function of posture in man. J Appl Physiol 19: 212–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Muller NM, Bryan AC, Zamel N (1981) Tonic inspiratory muscle activity as a cause of hyperinflation in histamine-induced asthma. J Appl Physiol 50: 279–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nagels J, Làndsér FJ, van der Linden L, Clément J, van de Woestijne KP (1980) Mechanical properties of lungs and chest wall during spontaneous breathing. J Appl Physiol 49: 408–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nanchev L (1978) A forced expiration end-segment flow rate to improve diagnosis of reversible bronchial obstruction. Respiration 36: 73–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Neuburger N, Levison H, Bryan AC, Kruger K (1976) Transit time analysis of the forced expiratory spirogram in growth. J Appl Physiol 40: 329–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nickerson BG, Lernen RJ, Gerdes CB (1980) Within-subject variability and percent change for significance of spirometry in normal subjects and in patients with cystic fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 122: 859–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Orehek J, Gayrard P, Smith AP, Grimaud C, Charpin J (1977) Airways response to carbachol in normal and asthmatic subjects. Distinction between bronchial sensitivity and reactivity. Am Rev Respir Dis 115: 937–943Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pelzer AM, Thompson ML (1966) Effect of age, sex, stature and smoking habits on human airway conductance. J Appl Physiol 21: 469–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pepys J, Hutchcroft DJ (1975) Bronchial provocation tests in etiologic diagnosis and analysis of asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 112: 829–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Peslin R (1983) Standardized lung function testing chapter 5 (lung mechanics II: resistance measurements). Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 19 [Suppl 5]: 33–38Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Peslin R, Bohadana A, Hannhart B, Jardin P (1979) Comparison of various methods for reading maximal expiratory flow-volume curves. Am Rev Respir Dis 119: 271–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Peslin R, Fredberg JJ (1986) Oscillation mechanics of the respiratory system. In: Macklem J, Mead J (eds) Handbook of Physiology, sect. 3, vol III: mechanics of breathing, part 1. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, pp 145–177Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Powell Zarins L (1982) Closed circuit helium dilution method of lung volume measurement. In: Clausen JL (ed) Pulmonary function testing — guidelines and controversies. Academic, New York, pp 129–140Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Prowse K, Cumming G (1973) Effects of lung volume and disease on the lung nitrogen decay curve. J Appl Physiol 34: 23–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Quanjer PhH editor (1983) Standardized lung function testing. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 19 [Suppl]: 5Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Quanjer PhH, Tammeling GJ (1983) Standardized lung function testing Chapter 1 (Summary of recommendations). Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 19 [Suppl 5]: 7–10Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Quanjer PhH, Dalhuijsen A, van Zomeren BC (1983) Standardized lung function testing: chapter 10 (appendix b, c and d). Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 19 [Suppl 5]: 67–86Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Quanjer PhH, Andersen LH, Tammeling GJ (1983) Standardized lung function testing: chapter 2 (static lung volumes and capacities). Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 19 [Suppl 5]: 11–21Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ramsdale JW, Tisi GM (1979) Determination of bronchodilatation in the clinical pulmonary function laboratory. Chest 76: 622–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ramsdale EH, Morris MM, Roberts RS, Hargreave FE (1984) Bronchial responsiveness to methacoline in chronic bronchitis — relationship to airflow obstruction and cold air responsiveness. Thorax 39: 912–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rodenstein DO, Stanescu DC, Francis C (1982) Demonstration of failure of body plethysmograph in airway obstruction. J Appl Physiol 52: 949–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rodenstein DO, Stanescu DC (1983) Frequency dependence of plethysmo-graphic volume in healthy and asthmatic subjects. J Appl Physiol 54: 159–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rossiter CE (1976) Contribution to discussion. Scand J Respir Dis 57: 315–316Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Schanning CG, Gulsvik A (1973) Accuracy and precision of helium dilution technique and body plethysmography in measuring lung volumes. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 32: 271–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Stanescu DC, Pattijn J, Clement J, van de Woestjine KP (1972) Glottis opening and airway resistance. J Appl Physiol 32: 460–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stanescu DC, Rodenstein DO, Cauberghs M, van de Woestjine KP (1982) Failure of body plethysmography in bronchial asthma. J Appl Physiol 52: 939–948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sterk PJ, Quanjer PhH, van der Maals LLJ, Wise ME, van der Lende R (1980) The validity of the single breath nitrogen determination of residual volume. Bull Eur Physiopat Resp 16: 195–213Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tager I, Speizer FE, Rosner B, Prang G (1976) A comparison between the three largest and the three last of five forced expiratory maneuvers in a population study. Am Rev Respir Dis 114: 1201–1203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Tammeling GJ, Quanjer PhH, Visser BF, Lende VD (1976) Airway closure and expiratory flow limitation in relation to smoking habits and symptoms of CNSLD. Scand J Respir Dis 95: 73–83Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Teculescu DB, Pham QT, Hannhart B (1986) Tests of small airway dysfunction — their correlation with the conventional lung function tests. Eur J Respir Dis 69: 175–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tien YK, Elliot EA, Mead J (1979) Variability of the configuration of maximum expiratory flow-volume curves. J Appl Physiol 46: 565–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Turner SZ, Blumenfeld W (1973) Heated Fleisch pneumotachometer: a calibration procedure. J Appl Physiol 34: 117–121Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Turner-Warwick M (1977) On observing patterns of airflow obstruction in chronic asthma. Br J Dis Chest 71: 73–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Vale JR, Gulsvik A, Kongerud J (1981) Random error with FEV,. Case for absolute values. Lancet I I: 313Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Van Noord JA, Clément J, Cauberghs M, Mertens I, Van de Woestijne KP, Demedts M (1989) Total respiratory resistance and reactance in patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease. Eur Respir J 2: 846–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Van Noord JA, Van de Woestijne KP, Demedts M (1991) Clinical applications and modelling of forced oscillation mechanics of the respiratory system. Eur Respir J 4: 247–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    van Schayck CP, Dompeling E, van Weel C, Folgering H, van den Hoogen HJM (1990) Accuracy and reproducibility of the ASSESS peak flow meter. Eur Respir J 3: 338–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Walter S, Nancy NR, Collier CR (1979) Changes in the forced expiratory spiro-gram in young male smokers. Am Rev Respir Dis 119: 717–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Webster PM, Zamel N, Bryan AC, Kruger K (1977) Volume dependence of instantaneous time constant derived from the maximal expiratory flow-volume curve. A new approach to the analysis of forced expiration. Am Rev Respir Dis 115: 805–810Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Woolcock AJ, Read J (1966) Lung volumes in exacerbations of asthma. Am J Med 41: 259–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Woolcock AJ, Read J (1968) The static elastic properties of the lungs in asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 98: 788–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wright BM, McKerrow LB (1959) Maximal forced expiratory flow rate as a measure of ventilatory capacity with a description of a new portable instrument of measuring it. Br Med J 2: 1041–1047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Zapletal A, Samànek M, Paul P (1987) Lung function in children and adolescent — methods, reference values. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Zapletal A, Samànek M, Paul P (1987) Airway patency. In: Zapletal A (ed) Lung function in children and adolescents — methods, reference values. Karger, Basel, pp 32–67Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Damato
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Respiratory Diseases, School of MedicineUniversity of MilanMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations