Advertisement

Long- and Short-Term Reversibility Tests

  • N. E. Moavero

Abstract

Bronchial obstruction is the consequence of several factors: (a) bronchospasm with or without bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy; (b) inflammatory cells infiltration; (c) vascular congestion and mucosal edema; (d) hyper-secretion of mucus with changes in its viscoelastic properties; (e) degenerative processes such as fibrosis and/or alveolar disruption. All these features are usually present, each one contributing differently according to the specific disease.

Keywords

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Force Vital Capacity Chronic Bronchitis Airway Resistance Bronchial Obstruction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Eliasson O, Degraff AC (1985) The use of criteria for reversibility and obstruction to define patient groups for bronchodilator trials. Am Rev Respir Dis 132: 858–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eaton ML, Green BA, Church TR, McGowan T, Niewohner DE (1980) Efficacy of theophylline in “irreversible” airflow obstruction. Ann Intern Med 92: 758–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mendella LA, Manfreda J, Warren CPW, Anthonisen NR (1982) Steroid response in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Intern Med 96: 17–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Detels R, Tashkin DP, Simmons MS et al. (1982) The UCLA population studies of chronic obstructive respiratory disease. 5: Agreement and disagreement of tests in identifying abnormal lung function. Chest 82: 630–638Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anonymous (1959) A report of the conclusions of a Ciba Guest Symposium: terminology, definitions and classifications of chronic pulmonary emphysema and related conditions. Thorax 14: 286–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gimeno F, Berg WC, Sluiter HJ, Tammeling GJ (1972) Spirometry-induced bronchial obstruction. Am Rev Respir Dis 105: 68–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anthonisen NR, Wright EC, IPPB trial group (1986) Bronchodilator response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 133: 814–819Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lloyd TC, Wright GW (1963) Evaluation of methods used in detecting changes in airway resistance in man. Am Rev Respir Dis 87: 529–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Watanabe S, Renzetti AD, Begin R (1974) Airway responsiveness to a bronchodilator aerosol. Am Rev Respir Dis 109: 530–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Knudson RJ, Lebowitz MD, Holberg CJ, Burrows B (1983) Changes in the normal maximal expiratory flow-volume curve with growth and aging. Am Rev Respir Dis 127: 725–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Olive JT, Hyatt RE (1972) Maximal expiratory flow and total respiratory resistance during induced broncho-constriction in asthmatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 106: 366–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stanescu DC, Brasseur L (1973) Maximal expiratory flow rates and airway resistance following histamine aerosols in asthmatics. Scand J Respir Dis 54: 333–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Oldham PD (1979) Percent of predicted as the limit of normal in pulmonary function testing: a statistically valid approach. Thorax 34: 569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miller MR, Pincock AC (1988) Predicted values: how should we use them? Thorax 43: 265–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Crapo RO, Morris AH, Gardner RM (1981) Reference spirometric values using techniques and equipment that meet ATS recommendations. Am Rev Respir Dis 123: 659–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    American Thoracic Society (1991) Lung function testing: selection of reference values and interpretative strategies. Am Rev Respir Dis 144: 1202–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Berger R, Smith D (1988) Acute postbronchodilator changes in pulmonary function parameters in patients with chronic airway obstruction. Chest 93: 541–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Light RW, Conrad SA, George RB (1977) The one best test for evaluating the effects of bronchodilator therapy. Chest 72: 512–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hruby J, Butler J (1975) Variability of routine pulmonary function tests. Thorax 30: 548–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Garcia JG, Hunninghake GW, Nugent KM (1984) Thoracic gas volume measurement: increased variability in patients with obstructive ventilatory defects. Chest 85: 272–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pelzer AM, Thompson ML (1966) Effect of age, sex, stature and smoking habits on human airway conductance. J Appl Physiol 21: 469–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brand PLP, Quanjer PH, Postma DS et al. (1990) A comparison of different ways to express bronchodilator response, part 2. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: A20Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tinkelman DG, Avner SE, Cooper DM (1977) Assessing bronchodilator responsiveness. J Allergy Clin Immunol 59 (2): 109–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lorber DB, Kaltenborn W, Burrows B (1978) Response to isoproterenol in a general population sample. Am Rev Respir Dis 118: 855–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lord PW, Brooks AGF (1977) A comparison of manual and automated methods of measuring airways resistance and thoracic gas volume. Thorax 32: 60–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lord PW, Brooks AGF, Edwards JM (1977) Variation between observers in the estimation of airways resistance and thoracic gas volume. Thorax 32: 67–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lord PW, Edwards JM (1978) Variation in airways resistance when defined over different ranges of airflows. Thorax 33: 401–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zedda S, Sartorelli E (1971) Variability of plethysmographic measurements of airway resistance during the day in normal subjects and in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis. Respiration 28: 158–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Eiser NM, Mills J, McRae KD, Snashall PD, Guz A (1980) Histamine receptors in normal human bronchi. Clin Sci 58: 537–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pelzer AM, Thompson ML (1969) Body plethysmographic measurements of airway conductance in obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 99: 194–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Becklake MR, Permutt S (1979) Evaluation of tests of lung function for “screening” of early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. In: Macklem PT, Per-mutt S (eds) Lung Biology in Health and Disease, vol 12: The lung in the transition between health and disease. Dekker, New York, pp 345–387Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tweeddale PM, Alexander F, McHardy GJR (1987) Short term variability in FEVI and bronchodilator responsiveness in patients with obstructive ventilatory defect. Thorax 42: 487–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    American College of Chest Physicians (1974) Report of the Committee on Emphysema. Criteria for the assessment of reversibility in airway obstruction. Chest 65: 552–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rebuck AS, Read J (1971) Assessment and management of severe asthma. Am J Med 51: 788–798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shenfield GM, Hodson ME, Clarke SW, Paterson JW (1975) Interaction of corticosteroids and catecholamines in the treatment of asthma. Thorax 30: 430–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kalsner S (1969) Mechanism of hydrocortisone potentiation of responses to epinephrine and norepinephrine in rabbit aorta. Circ Res 24: 383–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Davies AO, Lefkowitz RJ (1980) Corticosteroid-induced differential regulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in circulating human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear leukocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 51: 599–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. E. Moavero
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Respiratory Diseases, School of MedicineUniversity of MilanMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations