Mediators in Bronchial Provocation Tests

  • N. Del Bono
  • L. Del Bono


Three major pathogenetic components characterize bronchial asthma: (1) atopy, i.e., increased levels of IgE and increased degranulation of mast cells and basophils triggered by IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated stimuli; (2) allergic inflammation, which damages to varying extents the bronchial wall components (epithelium, vessels, submucosal glands, respiratory nerve endings, and smooth muscle); (3) bronchial hyperreactivity (BH) to physical, chemical, and allergic stimuli, which trigger bronchial obstruction by bronchospasm, vasodilation, mucosal edema, and mucous hypersecretion.


Force Vital Capacity Allergy Clin Immunol Total Lung Capacity Asthmatic Subject Geometric Standard Deviation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abraham WM, Burch RM, Farmer SG, Sielczak MW, Ahmed A, Cortes A (1991) A bradykinin antagonist modifies allergen-induced mediator release and late bronchial responses in sheep. Am Rev Respir Dis 143: 787–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Albazzaz MK, Patel KR, Shakir S, Dargie HJ, Reid JM (1989) Effect of inhaled leukotriene C4 on cardiopulmonary function. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 188–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alberts WM, Ferguson PR, Ramsdell JW (1983) Preparation and handling of methacholine chloridre testing solutions: effect of the hygroscopic properties of methacholine. Am Rev Respir Dis 127: 350–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arm JP, O’Hickey SP, Spur BW, Lee TH (1989) Airway responsiveness to histamine and leucotriene E4 in subjects with asthma. Am Rev Respir. Dis 140: 148–153Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arm JP, Spur BW, Lee TH (1988) The effects of inhaled leukotriene E4 on the airway responsiveness to histamine in subjects with asthma and normal subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 82: 654–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aursudkij B, Rogers DF, Evans TW, Alton EWFW, Chung KF, Barnes PJ (1987) Reduced tracheal mucus velocity in guinea-pig in vivo by platelet-activating factor. Am Rev Respir Dis 135: A160Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Balzano G, Delli Cari I, Gallo C, Cocco G, Melillo G (1989) Intrasubject between-day variability of PD20 methacholine assessed by the dosimeter inhalation test. Chest 95: 1239–1243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Balzano G, Schiano M, Cocco G et al. (1984) Me. Far dosimeter in bronchial provocation testing with pharmacological agents. Respir News Bull 26: 3–5Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barnes PJ (1989) Muscarinic receptor subtypes: implications for lung disease. Thorax 44: 161–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barnes JP, Nadel JA, Roberts JM, Basbaum CB (1982) Muscarinic receptors in lung and trachea: autoradiographic [3H] quinuclidinyl benzilate. Eur J Pharmacol 86: 103–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barnes NC, Piper PJ, Costello JF (1984) Comparative effects of inhaled leukotriene C4, leukotriene D4 and histamine in normal human subjects. Thorax 39: 500–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baron CB, Cunnigham M, Strauss JF, Coburn RF (1984) Pharmacomechanical coupling in smooth muscle may involve phosphatidylinositol metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 6899–6903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barrow SE, Dollery CT, Heavey DJ, Hickling NE, Ritter JM, Vial J (1986) Effect of vasoactive peptides on prostacyclin synthesis in man. Br J Pharmacol 87: 243–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Basbaum CB, Ueki I, Berzina L, Nadel JA (1981) Tracheal submucosal gland serous cells stimulated in vitro with adrenergic and cholinergic agonists. Cell Tissues Res 220: 481–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Basran GS, Page CP, Paul W, Morley J (1984) Platelet activating factor: a possible mediator of the dual response to allergen. Clin Allergy 14: 75–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Beer DJ, Rocklin RE (1984) Histamine-induced suppressor-cell activity [Postgraduate course]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 73: 439–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bel EH, van der Veen H, Dijkman JH, Sterk PJ (1989) The effect of inhaled budesonide on the maximal degree of airway narrowing to leukotriene D4 and methacholine in normal subjects in vivo. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 427–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Best CH, Dale HH, Dudley HV, Thorpe WV (1927) The nature of dilator constituents of certain tissue extracts. J Physiol 62: 397–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bhoola KD, Collier HOJ, Shachter ML, Shorley PG (1962) Actions of some peptides on bronchial muscle. Br J Pharmacol 19: 190–197Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bloom JW, Yamamura HI, Baumgartener C, Halonen M (1987) A muscarinic receptor with high affinity for pirenzepine mediates vagally induced bronchoconstriction. Eur J Pharmacol 133: 21–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boe J, Boe MA, Simonsson BG (1980) A dual action of histamine on isolated pulmonary arteries. Respiration 40: 117–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Braude S, Royston D, Coe C, Barnes PJ (1984) Histamine increases lung permeability by an H2 receptor mechanism. Lancet ii: 372–374Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Britton J, Mortagy A, Tattersfield A (1986) Histamine challenge testing: comparison of three methods. Thorax 41: 128–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chai H, Farr RS, Froehlich LA, Matheson DA, McLean JA, Rosenthal RR, Sheefer AL, Townley RG (1975) Standardization of bronchial inhalation procedures. J Allergy Clin Immunol 56: 323–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chan TB, Eiser N, Shelton D, Rees PJ (1987) Histamine receptors and pulmonary epithelial permeability. Br J Dis Chest 81: 260–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chapnick BM, Feigen LP, Hyman AL, Kadowitz PJ (1978) Differential effects of prostaglandins in the mesenteric vascular bed. Am J Physiol 235: H 326Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chatham M, Bleecker ER, Norman P, Smith PL, Mason P (1982) A screening test for airways reactivity. An abbreviated methacholine inhalation challenge. Chest 18: 15–18Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chilvers ER, Barnes PJ, Nahorski SR (1998) Muscarinic receptor stimulated turnover of polyphosphoinositides and inositol polyphosphates in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Br J Pharmachol 95: 778 PGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Christiansen SC, Proud D, Cochrane CG (1987) Detection of tissue kallikrein in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatic subjects J Clin Invest 79: 188–197Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chung KF, Minette P, Mc Cusker M, Barnes PJ (1988) Ketotifen inhibits the cutaneous but not the airway responses to platelet-activating factor in man. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81: 1192–1198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cockcroft DW, Berscheid BA (1983) Measurement of responsiveness to inhaled histamine: comparison of FEVI and sGaw. Ann Allergy 51: 374–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cockcroft DW, Berscheid BA, Murdock KY (1984) Unimodal distribution of bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine in a random human population. Chest 83: 751–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cockcroft DW, Killian DN, Mellon JJA, Hargreave FE (1977) Bronchial reactivity to inhaled histamine: a method and clinical survey. Clin Allergy 7: 235–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cockcroft DW, Murdock KY, Mink JT (1983) Determination of histamine PC20. Comparison of linear and logarithmic interpolation. Chest 84: 505–506Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Ginzel KH et al. (1976) Stimulation of “irritant” receptors and afferent C-fibers in the lung by prostaglandins. Nature 264: 451–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cropp GJA, Bernstein IL, Boushey HA et al. (1980) Guidelines for bronchial inhalation challenges with pharmacologic and antigenic agents. ATS New Spring 6: 11–19Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Curry JJ (1946) The action of histamine on the respiratory tract in normal and asthmatic subjects. J Clin Invest 25: 785–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cuss FM, Dixon CMS, Barnes PJ (1986) Effects of inhaled platelet activating factor in man. Lancet ii: 189–192Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Czarnetski BM, Benveniste J (1981) Effect of synthetic PAF-acether on human neutrophil function. Agents Actions 2: 549–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dautrebande L, Philippot E (1941) Crisi d’asthme expérimental par aérosols de carbaminoylcholine chez l’homme, traitée par dispersat de phénylaminopropane. Etude de l’action sur la respiration de ces substances par la détermination du volume respiratoire utile. Presse Méd 49: 942–946Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Davidson AB, Lee TH, Scanlon PD, Solvay J, McFadden ER Jr, Ingram RH Jr, Corey EJ, Austen KF, Drazen JM (1987) Bronchoconstrictor effects of leukotriene E4 in normal and asthmatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 135: 333–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Davis B, Roberts AM, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG (1982) Reflex tracheal gland secretion evoked by stimulation of bronchial C-fibers in dogs. J Appl Physiol 53: 985–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    De Koch MA, Nadel JA, Zuri S, Colebatch HJH, Olsen CR (1966) New method for perfusing bronchial arteries: histamine bronchoconstriction and apnoea. J Appl Physiol 21: 185–194Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    De Monchy JGR, Kauffman HF, Venge P, Koeter GH, Jansen HM, Sluiter HJ, De Vries K (1985) Bronchoalveolar eosinophilia during allergen-induced late asthmatic reactions. Am Rev Respir Dis 131: 373–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    De Vries K, Goei JT, Booij-Noord H, One NGM (1962) Changes during 24 hours of the lung function and histamine hyperreactivity of the bronchial tree in asthmatic and bronchitic patients. Int Arch Allergy 20: 93–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Del Bono N (1982) L’asma e la sua storia. Sandoz, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Diaz P, Gonzalez MC, Galleguillos FR, Ancic P, Cronwell O, Shepherd D, Durham SR, Gleich GI, Kay AB (1989) Leukocytes and mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage during allergen-induced late-phase asthmatic reactions. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 1383–1389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Drazen JM (1986) Inhalation challenge with sulfidopeptide leukotrienes in human subjects. Chest 89: 414–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dworski R, Sheller JR, Wickershan NE, Oates JA, Brigham KL, Roberts LJ, Fitzgerald GA (1989) Allergen-stimulated release of mediators into sheep bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: effect of cyclooxygenase inhibition. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 46–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Eiser NM, Kerrebijn KF, Quanjer PH (1983) Guidelines for standardization of bronchial challenges with (non specific) bronchoconstricting agents. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 19: 495–514Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Flower RJ, Harvey EA, Kingston WP (1976) Inflammatory effects of prostaglandin D2 in rat and human skin. Br. J Pharmacol 56: 229–233Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Frigas E, Gleich’GJ (1986) The eosinophil and the pathology of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 218: 286–288Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fuller RW, Dixon CMS, Cuss FMC, Barnes PJ (1987) Bradykinin-induced bronchoconstriction in humans. Mode of action. Am Rev Respir Dis 135: 176–180Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Georgopoulos D, Giulekas D, Ilonidis G, Sicletidis L (1989) Effect of salbutamol, ipratropium bromide and cromolyn sodium on prostaglandin F,-induced bronchospasm. Chest 96: 809–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Grandordy BM, Cuss FM, Sampson AS, Palmer JB, Barnes Pi (1986) Phosphatidylinositol response to cholinergic agonists in airway smooth muscle: relationship to contraction and muscarinic receptor occupancy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 238: 273–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Griesbacher T, Lembeck F (1987) Effect of bradykinin antagonists on bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation, venoconstriction, prostaglandin E2 release, nociceptor stimulation and contraction of the iris sphincter muscle in the rabbit. Br J Pharmacol 92: 333–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gruetter C, McNamara D, Hyman A, Kadowitz P (1978) Contractile effects of a PGH, analog and PGD2 on intrapulmonary vessels. Am J Physiol 234: H 139–145Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hardy CC, Robinson C, Tattersfield AE, Holgate ST (1984) The bronchoconstrictor effect of inhaled prostaglandin D2 in normal and asthmatic men. N Engl J Med 311: 209–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hargreave FE, Ryan G, Thomson NC, O’Byrne PM, Latimer K, Juniper EF, Dolovich J (1981) Bronchial responsiveness to histamine or methacholine in asthma: measurement and clinical significance. J Allergy Clin Immunol 68: 347–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Haroldsen PE, Voelkel NF, Henson JE, Henson PM, Murphy RC (1987) Metabolism of platelet-activating factor in isolated perfused rat lung. J Clin Invest 79: 1860–1867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hedqvist P, Holmgren A, Mathe’ AA (1971) Effect of prostaglandin F20, on the airway resistence in man. Acta Physiol Scand 82: 29AGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Holroyde MC, Altounyan REC, Cole M, Dixon M, Elliot EV (1981) Bronchoconstriction produced in man by leukotrienes C and D. Lancet ii: 17–18Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Holtzman MJ, Fabbri LM, O’Byrne PM, Gold BD, Aizawa H, Walters EH, Alpert SE, Nadel JA (1983) Importance of airway inflammation for hyperresponsiveness induced by ozone in dogs. Am Rev Respir Dis 127: 686–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hopp RJ, Bewtra AK, Nair NM, Townley RG (1984) Specificity and sensitivity of methacholine inhalation challenge in normal and asthmatic children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 74: 154–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hopp RJ, Bewtra AK, Nair NM, Watt GD, Townley RG (1986) Methacholine inhalation challenge in a selected pediatric population. Am Rev Respir Dis 134: 994–998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hopp RJ, Weiss SJ, Nair NM, Bewtra AK, Townley RG (1987) Interpretation of the results of methacholine inhalation challenge test. J Allergy Clin Immunol 80: 821–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hwang SB, Lam MH, Shen TY (1985) Specific binding sites for platelet activating factor in human lung tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 128: 972–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ishizaka T (1981) Analysis of triggering events in mast cells for immunoglobulin E-mediated histamine release. J Allergy Clin Immunol 67: 90–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ishizaka T, Iwata M, Ishizaka K (1985) Release of histamine and arachidonate from mouse mast cells induced by glycosylation-enhancing factor and bradykinin. J Immunol 134: 1880–1887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jenkins JR, Lai CKW, Holgate ST (1989) Effect of increasing doses of platelet activating factor ( PAF) on normal human airways (abstract ). J Allergy Clin Immunol 83: 282Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Johnson AR, Erdos EG (1973) Release of histamine from mast cells by vasoactive peptides. Proc. Soc Exp Biol Med 142: 1252Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Juniper EF, Frith PA, Dunnet C, Cockcroft DW, Hargreave FE (1978) Reproducibility and comparison of responses to inhaled histamine and methacholine. Thorax 33: 705–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Juniper EF, Syty-Golda M, Hargreave FE (1984) Histamine inhalation tests: inhalation of aerosol via a face mask versus a valve box with mouthpiece. Thorax 39: 556–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kaufman MP, Coleridge HM, Coleridge JCG, Bauer DG (1980) Bradykinin stimulates afferent vagal C-fibres in intrapulmonary airways of dogs. J Appl Physiol 48: 511–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kaye MG, Smith LJ (1990) Effect of inhaled leucotriene D4 and platelet-activating factor on airway reactivity in normal subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: 993–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kennedy SM, Burrows B, Vedal S, Enarson DA, Chan-Yeung M (1990) Methacholine responsiveness among working populations. Relationship to smoking and airway caliber. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 1377–1383Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Klein RC, Salvaggio JE (1966) Nonspecificity of the bronchoconstricting effect of histamine and acetyl methylcholine in patients with obstructive airway disease. J Allergy 37: 158–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Knowles M, Murray G, Shallal J, Askin F, Ranga V, Gatzy J, Boucher R (1984) Bioelectric properties and ion flow across excised human bronchi. J Appl Physiol 56: 868–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Krzanowski JJ, Anderson WH, Poison JB, Szentivanji A (1980) Prostaglandin mediated histamine tachyphylaxis in subhuman primate tracheal smooth muscle. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 247: 155–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Laitinen LA, Heino M, Laitinen A, Kava T, Haatela T (1985) Damage of the airway epithelium and bronchial reactivity in patients with asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 131: 599–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lammers J-W, Minette P, McCusker M, Barnes JP (1989) The role of pirenzepine-sensitive (M1) muscarinic receptor in vagally mediate bronchoconstriction in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 446–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Laube BL, Adams GK III, Norman PS, Rosenthal RR (1985) The effect of inspiratory flow rate regulation on nebulizer output and on human airway response to methacholine aerosol. J Allergy Clin Immunol 76: 708–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lemire RE, Cartier A, Malo JL, Pineau L, Ghezzo H, Martin RR (1984) Effect of sodium cromoglycate on histamine inhalation tests. J Allergy Clin Immunol 73: 234–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Leuallen EC, Fowler WS (1955) Maximal midexpiratory flow. Am Rev Tuberc 72: 783–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lewis RA, Austen KF (1984) The biologically active leukotrienes. Biosynthesis, metabolism, receptors, functions and pharmacology. J Clin Invest 73: 889–898Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lewis RA, Drazen JM, Austen KF, Clark DA, Corey EJ (1980) Identification of the c(6)-S-coniugate of leukotriene A with cysteine as a naturally occurring slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A). Importance of the 11-cis geometry for biological activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 96: 271–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lewis RA, Soter NA, Diamond PT, Austen KF, Oates JA, Roberts LJ II (1982) Prostaglandin D2 release after activation of rat and human mast cells with anti IgE. J Immunol 129: 1627–1631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Liu MC, Blecker ER, Lichtenstein LM, Kagey-Sobotka A, McLemore TL, Per-mutt S, Proud D, Hubband WC (1990) Evidence for elevated levels of histamine, prostaglandin D2, and other bronchoconstricting prostaglandine in the airways of subjects with mild asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 126–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Marsh WR, Irwin CG, Murphy KR, Behrens BL, Larsen GL (1985) Increases in airway reactivity to histamin and inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage after the late asthmatic response in an animal model. Am Rev Respir Dis 131: 875–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mathe’ AA, Hedqvist P, Strandberg K, Leslie CA (1971) Aspects of prostaglandin function in the lung. N Engl J Med 296: 850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mathe’ AA, Hedqvist P, Holmgren A, Svanborg N (1973) Bronchial hyperreactivity to prostaglandin Fla and histamine in patients with asthma. Brit J Med 1: 193–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Meade CJ, Heuer H (1991) PAF antagonism as a approach to the treatment of airway hyperreactivity. Am Rev Respir Dis 143: S 79-S 82Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Miadonna A, Tedeschi A, Leggieri E, Fabbri C, Lorini M, Qualizza R, Pastorello E, Froldi M, Zanussi C (1986) Effetto della provocazione nasale con istamina, leucotriene C4 e prostaglandina D2 nei pazienti affetti da rinite allergica da pollini di graminacee. Folia Allergol Immunol Clin 33: 279–284Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Michel O, Sergysels R, Duchateau J (1989) Comparison de deux modes d’administration de l’histamine sur la résponse bronchomotrice chez l’asthmatique. Rev Mal Respir 6: 251–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Miller MR, Tarin C, Madan I (1991) The effect of a subject’s inhalation on the output of hand driven nebulizers (abstract). Am Rev Respir Dis 142: S 427Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mills DCB, Macfarlane DE (1974) Stimulation of human platelet adenylate ciclase by prostaglandin D2. Thromb Res 5: 401–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Minette PA, Barnes PJ (1988) Prejunctional inhibitory muscarinic receptors on cholinergic nerves in human and guinea-pig airways. J Appl Physiol 64: 2532–2537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Minette PA, Lammers J-W, Barnes PJ (1988) Is there a defect in inhibitory muscarinic receptors in asthma? Am Rev Respir Dis 137 [Suppl]: 239Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mojarad M, Hamasaki Y, Said I (1983) Platelet-activating factor increases pulmonary microvascular permeability and induces pulmonary oedema. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 19: 253–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Murphy RC, Hammarstrom S, Samuelsson B (1979) Leukotriene C: A slow-reacting substance from murine mastocytoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 4275–4279Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nadel JA, Tierney DF (1961) Effect of a previous deep inspiration on airway resistence in man. J Appl Physiol 16: 717–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nadel JF, Widdicombe JG, Peatfield AC (1985) Regulation of airway secretion, ion transport and water movement. In: Fishman AP, Fisher AB (eds) Handbook of physiology, vol 1, sect 3: the respiratory system. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, pp 419–445Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nieminen MM, Landensuo A, Kellomaeki L, Karvonen J, Muittari A (1988) Methacholine bronchial challenge using a dosimeter with controlled tidal breathing. Thorax 43: 896–900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nieminen MM, Moilanen EK, Nyholm J-EJ, Koskinen MO, Karvonen JI, Metsä-Ketelä TJ, Vapaatalo H (1991) Platelet-activating factor impairs muco-ciliary transport and increases plasma leukotriene B4 in man. Eur Respir J 4: 551–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    O’Byrne PM, Aizawa H, Bethel RA et al. (1984) Prostaglandin F2„ increases responsiveness of pulmonary airways in dogs. Prostaglandins 28: 537–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    O’Connor G, Sparrow D, Taylor D, Segal M, Weiss S (1987) Analysis of dose-response curves to methacholine. An approach suitable for population studies. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 1412–1417Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    O’Flaherty JT (1985) Neutrophil degranuation: evidence pertaining to its mediation by the combined effects of leukotriene B4, platelet-activating factor, and 5-HETE. J Cell Physiol 122: 229–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    O’Hickey SP, Arm JP, Rees PJ, Spur BW, Lee TH (1988) The relative responsiveness to inhaled leukotriene E4, methacholine and histamine in normal and asthmatic subjects. Eur Respir J 1: 913–917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Orehek J, Gayrard P (1976) Les tests de provocation bronchique non specifiques dans l’asthme. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 12: 565–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Orning L, Hammarstrom S, Samuelsson B (1980) Leukotriene D: a slow reacting substance from rat basophilic leukemia cell. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 2014–2017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Page CP, Paul W, Dewar A, Wood L, Basran GS, Morley J (1982) PAF-acether: a putative mediator of asthma and inflammation. Agents Actions [Suppl] 13: 177–183Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Platshon LF, Kaliner M (1978) The effect of the immunologic release of histamine upon human lung cyclic nucleotide levels and prostaglandin generation. J Clin Invest 62: 1113–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Polosa R, Holgate ST (1990) Comparative airway response to inhaled bradykinin, kallidin and [des-Arg9]bradykinin in normal and asthmatic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 1367–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Polosa R, Phillips GD, Lai CKW, Holgate ST (1990) Contribution of histamine and prostanoids to bronchoconstriction provoked by inhaled bradykinin in atopic asthma. Allergy 45: 174–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pratter MR, Marwaha RK, Irwin RS, Johnson BF, Curley FG (1985) Stability of stored histamine diphosphate solutions. Clinically useful information. Am Rev Respir Dis 132: 1130–1131Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Pretolani M, Lefort J, Malanchere E, Vergaftig BB (1987) Interference by the novel PAF-acether antagonist WEB 2086 with the bronchopulmonary responses to PAF-acether and to active and passive anaphylactic shock in guinea pigs. Eur J Pharmacol 140: 311–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Proud D, Togias A, Nacleiro RM, Crush SA, Norman PS, Lichtenstein LM (1983) Kinins are generated in vivo following nasal airway challenge of allergic individuals with allergen. J Clin Invest 72: 1678–1685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Raaijmakers JAM, Terpstra GK, Van Rozen AJ, Witter A, Kreukniet J (1984) Muscarinic cholinergic receptors in peripheral lung tissue of normal subjects and of patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Clin Sci 66: 585–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Rachiele A, Malo JL, Cartier A, Pineau L, Ghezzo H, Martin RR (1983) Circadian variations of airway response to histamine in asthmatic subjects. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 19: 465–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ramsdale EH, Otis J, Kline PA, Gontovnik LS, Hargreave FE, O’Byrne PM (1991) Prolonged protection against methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction by the inhaled ß2-agonist formoterol. Am Rev Respir Dis 143: 998–1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Regoli D, Barabe J (1980) Pharmacology of bradykinin and related peptides. Pharmacol Rev 32: 1–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Regoli D, Barabe J, Park WK (1977) Receptors for bradykinin in rabbit aorta. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 55: 855–867PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Riley JF, West GB (1953) The presence of histamine in tissue mast cells. J Physiol 120: 528–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Roberts JA, Rodger IW, Thomson NC (1987) In vivo and in vitro human airway responsiveness to leukotriene D4 in patients without asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 80: 688–694Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rocklin, RE (1977) Histamine induced suppressor factor (HSF): effect on migration inhibitory factor ( MIF) production and proliferation. J Immunol 118: 1734–1740Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Romano C (1990) Importanza della standardizzazione degli aerosoli nei test di broncoprovocazione. In: Del Bono L, Del Bono N (eds) I test di broncoprovocazione. Essetre, Roma, pp 106–121Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Roseman TJ, Yalkowsky SH (1973) Physicochemical properties of prostaglandin F2, (tromethamine salt): solubility behavior, surface properties, and ionization constants. J Pharm Sci 62: 1680–1685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Rosenthal RR, Norman PS, Summer WR, Permutt S (1977) Role of the parasympathetic nervous system in antigen-induced bronchospasm. J Appl Physiol 42: 600–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Rossoni G, Omini C, Vigano T, Mandelli V, Folco GC, Berti F (1980) Bronchoconstriction by histamine and bradykinin in guinea-pigs: relationship to thromboxane A2 generation and the effect of aspirin. Prostaglandins 20: 547–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rubin AE, Smith LJ, Patterson R (1987) Platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced bronchoconstriction in man: mechanism of action (abstract). Am Rev Respir Dis 135: A 158Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Rubin AE, Smith LJ, Patterson R (1987) The bronchoconstrictor properties of platelet-activating factor in man. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 1145–1151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ruffin RE, Alpers JH, Crocket AJ, Hamilton R (1981) Repeated histamine inhalation tests in asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 67: 285–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ryan G, Dolovich MB, Eng P, Obminski G, Cockcroft DW, Juniper EF, Hargreave FE, Newhouse MT (1981) Standardization of inhalation provocation tests: influence of nebulizer output, particle size, and method of inhalation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 67: 156–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Samson SR, Vidruk DH (1979) The nature of the receptor mediating stimulant effects of histamine on rapidly adapting vagal afferents in the lung. J Physiol (Lond) 287: 509–518Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Saria A, Lundberg JM, Skofitsch G, Lembeck F (1983) Vascular protein leakage in various tissues induced by substance P, capsaicin, bradykinin, serotonin, histamine and by antigen challenge. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 324: 212–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Schild HO, Hawkins DF, Momgar JL, Herxheimer H (1951) Reactions of isolated human asthmatic lung and bronchial tissue to a specific antigen: histamine release and muscolar contraction. Lancet ii: 376–382Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Simonsson BG, Skoogh BE, Bergh NP, Anderson R, Svedmyr N (1973) In vivo and in vitro effect of bradykinin on bronchial motor tone in normal subjects and in patients with airway obstruction. Respiration 30:378–380Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Smith JB, Silver MJ, Ingerman CM, Kocsis JJ (1974) Prostaglandin D2 inhibits the aggregation of human platelets. Thromb. Res 5: 291–299Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Smith LI, Greenberger PA, Patterson R, Krell RD, Bernstein PR (1985) The effect of inhaled leukotriene D, in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis 131: 368–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Sovijärvi ARA (1983) Area under the flow-volume curve: a new sensitive index to asses bronchodilation. IRCS Med Sci 11: 1104Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sweatman WJF, Collier HOG (1968) Effects of prostaglandins on human bronchial muscle. Nature 217: 69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Thomson NC, Roberts R, Thech M, Bandouvakis J, Newball H, Hargreave (1981) Comparison of bronchial response to prostaglandin Fla and methacholine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 68: 392–398Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Tiffeneau R, Beauvallet M (1945) Épreuve de bronchoconstriction et de bronchodilation par aérosols. Emploi pour le dépistage, la mesure et le controle des insuffisance respiratoires chroniques. Bull Acad Méd Paris 129: 165–168Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Townley RG,Hopp RJ (1988) Measurement and interpretation of nonspecific bronchial reactivity. Chest 94: 452–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Tremblay C, Lemire I, Ghezzo H, Pineau L, Martin RR, Cartier A, Malo JL (1984) Histamine phosphate has a cumulative effect when inhaled at five minute intervals. Thorax 39: 946–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Vanhoutte PM (1989) Epithelium-derived relaxing factor(s) and bronchial reactivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 83: 855–861PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Vargaftig BB, Chignard M, Benveniste J, Lefort J, Wal F (1981) Background and present status of research on platelet-activating factor ( PAF-acether ). Ann NY Acad Sci 370: 119–137Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Voelkel NF, Worthen S, Reeves JT, Henson PM, Murphy RC (1982) Non immunological production of leukotrienes induced by platelet-activating factor. Science 218: 286–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wardlaw AJ, Moqbel R, Cromwell O, Kay AB (1986) Platelet-activating factor. A potent chemotactic and chemokinetic factor for human eosinophils. J Clin Invest 78: 1701–1706Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wasserman ST (1983) Mediators of immediate hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 72: 101–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wasserman MA, Du Charme DW, Griffin RL, De Graaf GL, Robinson FG (1977) Bronchopulmonary and cardiovascular effects of prostaglandin D2 in the dog. Prostaglandins 13: 255–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Wasserman M, Griffin RL, Marsalisi FB (1980) Potent bronchoconstrictor effects of aerosolized prostaglandin D2 in dogs. Prostaglandins 20: 703–715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Watanabe K, Iguchi Y, Iguchi S et al. (1986) Stereospecific conversion of prostaglandin D2 to (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9a,11ß,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic-acid(9a, 110-prostaglandin f2) and of prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin F2. by bovine lung prostaglandin F synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 1583–1587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Weiss S, Robb GP, Ellis LB (1932) The systemic effects of histamine in man with special reference to the response of the cardiovascular system. Arch Intern Med 49: 360–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Wilhelm DL (1971) Kinins in human disease. Annu Rev Med 22: 63–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Yan K, Salome CM, Woolcock AJ (1983) Rapid method for measurement of bronchial responsiveness. Thorax 38: 760–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Del Bono
    • 1
  • L. Del Bono
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro per lo Studio dell‘ Asma e delle Allergopatie RespiratoriePisaItaly

Personalised recommendations