Advertisement

Lungscapes pp 77-92 | Cite as

Damage to Airway Epithelium

  • P. C. Braga
  • L. Allegra
  • G. Piatti

Abstract

Ciliated cells and goblet cells are the cells most exposed to external noxae, and thus more subject to damage. In chronic bronchitic disease and in other pulmonary diseases in which there is abnormal mucus production, the goblet cells appear swollen and increased in number, while cilia are often nonuniformly glued to each other by mucus. During bacterial and viral infections marked changes have been observed in the “ciliated carpet”. Initially there is a partial sloughing of isolated ciliated cells and, mainly during viral infection, also loss of cilia, more severe in the bronchioli and small intrapulmonary bronchi than in the major bronchi. This loss of cilia destroys the ciliary carpet on the luminal surface of these airways and exposes the microvilli [1]. The exact mechanism of ciliary loss has not been determined. The damage is not uniform, as intact areas are still visible scattered throughout the respiratory mucosae, near damaged areas.

Keywords

Goblet Cell Airway Epithelium Ciliated Cell Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Ciliated Epithelium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bryson DG, McNulty MS, McCracken RN, Cush PF (1983) Ultrastructural features of experimental parainfluenza type 3 virus pneumonia in calves. J Comp Pathol 93: 397–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moorthy ARS, Spradbrow PB (1985) The effect of mycoplasmas and acholeplasmas of equine origin on organ cultures of chicken-embryo trachea. J Comp Pathol 95: 209–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gabridge MG, Bright MJ, Richards HR (1982) Scanning electron microscopy of mycoplasma pneumoniae on the membrane of individual ciliated tracheal cell. In Vitro 18: 55–62Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bertrand B, Degen A (1983) Étude de la clearance mucociliare en clinique courante et anomalies ciliaires en microscopie électronique. Acta OtoRinho-Otorhinolaryngol Belg 37: 662–671Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johnson AP, Clark JB, Osborn MF (1983) Scanning electron microscopy of the interaction between Haemophilus influenzae and organ cultures of rat trachea. J Med Microbiol 16: 477–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azoulay-Dupuis E, Lambre CR, Soler P, Moreu J, Thibon M (1984) Lung alterations in guinea-pigs infection with influenza virus. J Comp Pathol 94: 273–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Howell JI, Schochet SS, Goldman AS (1980) Ultrastructural defects of respiratory tract cilia associated with chronic infections. Arch Pathol Lab Med 140: 52–55Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Neustein H, Church J, Cohens S (1979) Dysmorphology of cilia associated with chronic suppurative respiratory disease. JAMA 214: 2423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Theopold HM, Jakneke V, Schinko I (1984) Zur Feinstruktur der Zilien bei Kartagener-Syndrom. Laryngorhinotologie 63: 33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Afzelius BA (1981) “Immotile-cilia” syndrome and ciliary abnormalities induced by infection and injury. Am Rev Respir Dis 124:107–109Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schneberger EE, McCormack J, Issenberg HK, Schuster SR, Gerald PS (1980) Heterogeneity of ciliary morphology in the immotile-cilia syndrome in man. J Ultrastruct Res 73: 34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee RMKW, Rossman CM, O’Brodvich H, Forrest JB, Newhouse MT (1984) Ciliary defects associated with the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Ciliary motility and ultrastructure. Am Rev Respir Dis 129: 190–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rossman CM, Lee RMKW, Forrest JB, Newhouse MT (1984) Nasal ciliary ultrastructure and function in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia corn-pared with that in normal subjects and in subjects with various respiratory diseases. Am Rev Respir Dis 129: 161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fox B, Bull TB, Makey AR, Rawbone R (1981) The significance of ultrastructural abnormalities of human cilia. Chest 80 (Suppl): 796–799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Albertsson M, Baldetorp B, Hakanssin CH, Meckleburg CV (1984) The effects of 10 Gy single-dose irradiation of the ciliated epithelium measured during a one-to-ten day following irradiation. Scaning Electron Microsc 2: 813–824Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Albertsson M (1985) Dose-response studies of single dose ionizing radiation on the ciliated epithelium of the trachea of the rabbit. Acta Radiol Oncol 24: 433–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Meecklenburg CV, Mercke U, Hakansson CH, Toremalm NG (1974) Morphological changes in ciliary cells due to heat exposure. A scanning electron microscopy study. Cell Tissue Res 148: 45–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Albertsson N, Hakansson CH (1988) Changes in the tracheal ciliated cells in rabbit treated by cisdiamminedichloroplatinum ( II) as studies by electron microscopy. Scanning Microsc 2: 2173–2179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dickett KE, Schiller SL, Girard PR, Kennedy JR (1986) The effects of gossypol on the ultrastructure and function of tracheal ciliated cells. J Submicrosc Cytol 18: 117–125Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schiff LJ, Byrne MM, Elliot SF, More SJ, Ketels KV, Graham JA (1981) Response of hamster trachea in organ culture to mount St. Helens volcano ash. Scanning Electron Microsc 2: 164–178Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Overton JH, Miller FJ (1988) Absorption of inhaled reactive gases. In: Gardner DE, Crapo JD, Massaro EJ (eds) Toxicology of the lung. Raven, New York, pp 477–507Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. C. Braga
    • 1
  • L. Allegra
    • 2
  • G. Piatti
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro di Farmacologia Respiratoria, Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoItaly
  2. 2.Istituto di Malattie Respiratoria, Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations