Advertisement

Lungscapes pp 59-75 | Cite as

Architecture of Alveolar Ducts, Sacs, Alveoli, and Nonresident Cells

  • L. Allegra
  • G. Piatti

Abstract

Each terminal bronchiole divides into two respiratory bronchioles which have a few alveoli along their course and give rise to several alveolar ducts with walls made entirely of alveoli. The alveolar ducts are followed by the alveolar sacs, which are the sites where many alveoli clusters come together. The alveolus is a terminal anatomical structure of polyhedral conformation in which gas exchange occurs [1]. The dense packing of alveoli (approximately 300 million each, with a diameter of 250 µm) gives the lungs their spongy appearance.

Keywords

Alveolar Epithelium Alveolar Surface Terminal Bronchiole Alveolar Duct Respiratory Bronchiole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Staub NC, Albertine KH (1988) The structure of the lungs relative to their principal function. In: Murray H, Nadel J (eds) Textbook of respiratory medicine. Saunders, London, pp 12–46Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maisin JR, Van Gorp U, De Saint-Georges L (1982) The ultrastructure of the lung after exposure to ionizing radiation as seen be transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning Electron Microsc 1: 403–412Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Williams MC (1990) The alveolar epithelium. Structure and study by immunocytochemistry. In: Schraufnagel DE (ed) Electron microscopy of the lung, vol 48. Dekker, New York, pp 121–147Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Greenwood MF, Holland P (1972) The mammalian respiratory tract surface. A scanning electron microscopic study. Lab Invest 27: 296–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fishman AP (1988) Pulmonary diseases and disorders, vol 1, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 11–44Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bartles H, Oestern HJ, Voss-Wermbter G (1980) Communicating-occluding junction complexes in the alveolar epithelium. Am Rev Respir Dis 121: 1017–1024Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kessel RG, Kardon RH (1979) Tissue and organs: a text-atlas of SEM. Freeman, San Francisco, pp 203–217Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davis ML, Lewandowski J, Dodson RF (1984) Morphology and ultrastructure of the distal airway epithelium in the guinea pig. Anat Rec 209: 509–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Groniowsky J, Walski M, Biczysko W (1972) Application of scanning electron microscopy for study of the lung parenchyma. J Ultrastruct Res 37: 473–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Breeze R, Turk M (1984) Cellular structure, function and organization in the lower respiratory tract. Environ Health Perspect 55: 3–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Green GM, Jakab GJ, Low RB, Davis GS (1977) Defense mechanisms of the respiratory membrane. Am Rev Respir Dis 115: 479–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Andrews PM (1979) The respiratory system. In: Hodges GM, Hallowes RC (eds) Biomedical applications of SEM, vol 1. Academic, London, pp 177–202Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Davis GS (1979) Functional and physiologic correlates of human alveolar macrophage cell shape and surface morphology. Chest 75 (Suppl): 280–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morgenroth K (1979) Il surfattante polmonare. De Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Allegra
    • 1
  • G. Piatti
    • 2
  1. 1.Istituto di Malattie Respiratoria, Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoItaly
  2. 2.Centro di Farmacologia Respiratoria, Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations