Lungscapes pp 59-75 | Cite as

Architecture of Alveolar Ducts, Sacs, Alveoli, and Nonresident Cells

  • L. Allegra
  • G. Piatti


Each terminal bronchiole divides into two respiratory bronchioles which have a few alveoli along their course and give rise to several alveolar ducts with walls made entirely of alveoli. The alveolar ducts are followed by the alveolar sacs, which are the sites where many alveoli clusters come together. The alveolus is a terminal anatomical structure of polyhedral conformation in which gas exchange occurs [1]. The dense packing of alveoli (approximately 300 million each, with a diameter of 250 µm) gives the lungs their spongy appearance.


Alveolar Epithelium Alveolar Surface Terminal Bronchiole Alveolar Duct Respiratory Bronchiole 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Allegra
    • 1
  • G. Piatti
    • 2
  1. 1.Istituto di Malattie Respiratoria, Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoItaly
  2. 2.Centro di Farmacologia Respiratoria, Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoItaly

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