Advertisement

Lungscapes pp 51-58 | Cite as

Bronchioli as Visualized by SEM

  • L. Allegra
  • G. Piatti

Abstract

Bronchioles are intrapulmonary airways that start from the 4th generation and continuously bifurcate until they reach the alveolar ducts. They are called terminal bronchioles from the 15th to the 16th generations and respiratory bronchioles from the 17th to the 19th generation [1]. The caliber of the airways decreases from the trachea to the distal branches: bronchioles are approximately 1 mm in diameter or less. While surprisingly numerous, they are very short in length [2,3].

Keywords

Ciliated Cell Clara Cell Terminal Bronchiole Alveolar Duct Respiratory Bronchiole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Fishman AP (1980) Pulmonary disease and disorders, vol 1. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 11–44Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kessel RG, Kardon RH (1979) Tissue and organs: a text-atlas of SEM. Freeman, San Francisco, pp 203–217Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Staub NC, Albertine KH (1988) The structure of the lungs relative to their principal function. In: Murray H, Nadel J (eds) Textbook of respiratory medicine. Saunders, London, pp 12–46Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andrews PM (1974) A scanning electron microscopic study of extrapulmonary respiratory tract. Am J Anat 139: 399–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andrews PM (1979) The respiratory system. In: Hodges GH, Hallowes RC (eds) Biomedical research application of SEM. Academic, London, pp 177–202Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nai San Wang (1970) Scanning electron microscopy of the lung. Hum Pathol 1: 227–231Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    St George JA, Harkema JR, Hyde DM, Plopper CG (1988) Cell populations and structure-function relationships of cells in the airways. In: Gardner DE, Crapo JD, Massaro EJ (eds) Toxicology of the lung. Raven, New York, pp 71–102Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Souma T (1987) The distribution and surface ultrastructure of airway epithelial cells in the rat lung: a scanning electron microscopic study. Arch Histol Jap 50: 419–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Plopper CG, Mariassy AT, Hill LH (1980) Ultrastructure epithelial (Clara) cell of mammalian lung. II. A comparison of horse, steer, sheep, dog, cat. Exp Lung Res 1: 155–169Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Castleman WL, Dungworth DL, Tyler WS (1975) Intrapulmonary airway morphology in three species of monkeys: a correlated scanning and transmission electron microscopic study. Am J Anat 142: 107–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roth J, Meyer HW (1972) Electron microscopic studies in mammalian lungs by freeze-etching. III. The bronchiolar cells with special consideration of the Clara cells. Exp Pathol 7: 71–83Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Davis ML, Lewandowski J, Dodson RF (1984) Morphology and ultrastructure of the distal airway epithelium in the guinea pig. Anat Rec 209: 509–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gil J, Weibel E (1971) Extracellular lining of bronchioles after perfusion-fixation of rat lungs for electron microscopy. Anat Rec 169: 185–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ebert RV, Terracio MJ (1975) Observation of the secretion of the surface of the bronchioles with scanning electron microscope. Am Rev Respir Dis 112: 491–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Breeze R, Turk M (1984) Cellular structure, function and organization in the lower respiratory tract. Environ Health Perspect 55: 3–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hiroshima K, Kohno T, Owada H, Hayashi Y (1987) A morphological study of the effects of ozone on rat lung. I. Short-term exposure. Exp Mol Pathol 47: 327–345Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Plopper CG, Hyde DM, Weir AJ (1983) Centroacinar alterations in lungs of cats chronically exposed to diesel exhaust. Lab Invest 49: 391–399PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Allegra
    • 1
  • G. Piatti
    • 2
  1. 1.Istituto di Malattie Respiratorie, Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoItaly
  2. 2.Centro di Farmacologia Respiratoria, Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations