Ciliated Cells of the Tracheobronchial Tree and Their Morphology on SEM

  • P. C. Braga
  • G. Piatti


With scanning electron microscopy one can examine the surface morphology and distribution of the epithelial cells of the airways.


Scanning Electron Microscopic Study Ciliated Cell Nonciliated Cell Recovery Stroke Effective Stroke 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Souma T (1987) The distribution and surface ultrastructure of airways epithelial cells in the rat lung: a scanning electron microscopic study. Arch Histol Jap 50: 419–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tandler B, Sherman JM, Boat T (1983) Surface architecture of the mucosae epithelium of the cat. Trachea I, cartilaginous portion. Am J Anat 168: 119–131Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bennet HS (1963) Morphological aspects of extra-cellular polysaccharides. J Histochem Cytochem 11: 14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kilburn KH (1968) A hypothesis for pulmonary clearance and its implications. Am Rev Respir Dis 48: 449–463Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Foroglou-Kerameos C, Mantos A, Bontis I, Katsaros I (1983) Présence de microcils sur l’extremité apicale des cils de l’épithelium de la trompe uterine. Acta Anat (Basel) 115: 107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kuhn C, Engleman W (1978) The structure of the tips of mammalian respiratory cilia. Cell Tissue Res 186: 491–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Foliguet B, Puchelle E (1986) Apical structure of human respiratory cilia. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 22: 43–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Le Cluyse EL, Dentler WL (1984) Asymmetrical microtubule capping structures in frog palate cilia. J Ultrastruct Res 86: 75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Breeze R, Tork M (1984) Cellular structure, function and organization in the lower respiratory tract. Environ Health Perspect 35: 3–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Afzeliús BA (1983) Ultrastructural basis for ciliary motility. Eur J Respir Dis 64 (Suppl 128): 280–286Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Horridge GA, Tamm SL (1969) Critical Point drying for scanning electron microscopic study of ciliary motion. Science 163: 817–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Satir PI (1968) Studies on cilia: III. Further studies on the cilium tip and a “sliding filament” model of ciliary motility. J Cell Biol 39: 77–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rautiainen MEP (1988) Orientation of human respiratory cilia. Eur Respir J 1: 257–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sanderson HJ, Dirksen ER, Satir P (1990) Electron microscopy of respiratory tract cilia. In: Schraufragel DE (ed) Electron microscopy of the lung. Dekker, New York, pp 47–69Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raptis A, Perdikis C (1983) A mathematical model of the cilia for pharyngeal epithelium of the frog. J Biomech 16: 235–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pui-Man Low P (1984) A modified mathematical model of the cilia for pharingeal epithelium of the frog. J Biomech 17: 815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barton C, Raynor S (1967) Analytical investigation of cilia induced mucous flow. Bull Math Biophys 29: 419–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stewart WC (1948) Weight-carrying capacity and excitability of excised ciliated epithelium. Am J Physiol 152: 1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hard R, Rieder CL (1983) Mucociliary transport in new lungs: the ultrastructure of the ciliary apparatus in isolated epithelial sheets and in functional triton-extracted models. Tissue Cell 15: 227–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Puchelle E, Petit A, Adnet JJ (1984) Fine structure of the frog palate mucociliary epithelium. J Submicrosc Cytol 16: 273–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reissig M, Bang BG, Bang BF (1978) Ultrastructure of the mucociliary interface in the nasal mucosa of the chicken. Am Rev Respir Dis 117: 327–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smolich JJ, Stratford BF, Maloney JE, Ritchie B (1976) Postnatal development of the epithelium of larinx and trachea in the rat: scanning electron microscopy. J Anat 124: 657–673Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    McAteer J (1984) Tracheal morphogenesis and fetal development of the mucociliary epithelium of the rat. Scanning Electron Microsc 4: 1995–2008Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dalen H (1983) An ultrastructural study of the tracheal epithelium of the guinea-pig with special reference to the ciliary structure. J Anat 136: 46–67Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kennedy JR, Ranyard JR (1983) Morphology and quantitation of ciliated outgrowths from cultured rabbit tracheal explants. Eur J Cell Biol 29: 200–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Barber VC, Boyde A (1968) Scanning electron microscopic studies of cilia. Z Zellforsch 84: 269–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wright NG, Brown RMH, Mc Candlish IAP, Thompson H, Cornwell HJC (1983) Patterns of cilia formation in the lower respiratory tract of dog: a scanning electron microscopic study. Res Vet Sci 34: 340–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Castleman WL, Dungworth DL, Tyler WS (1975) Intrapulmonary airway morphology in three species of monkeys. A correlated scanning and transmission electron microscopic study. Am J Anat 142: 107–122Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Plopper CG, Mariassy AT, Wilson DW, Alley JL, Nisho SJ, Nettersheim P (1983) Comparison of nonciliated tracheal epithelial cells in six mammalian species: ultrastructure and population densities. Exp Lung Res 5: 281–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Greenwood MF, Holland P (1972) The mammalian respiratory tract surface. A scanning electron microscopic study. Lab Invest 27: 296–304Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jeffery PK (1983) Morphologic features of airway surface epithelial cells and glands. Am Rev Respir Dis 128: 14–20Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kessel RG, Kardon RH (1979) Tissues and organs, a text-atlas of scanning electron microscopy. Freeman New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Moscoso GJ, Nandra K, Driver M (1989) Ciliogenesis and ciliation of the respiratory epithelium in the human fetal cartilaginous trachea. Path Res Pract 184: 161–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moscoso GJ, Driver M, Codd J, Whimstr WF (1988) The morphology of ciliogenesis in the developing fetal human respiratory epithelium. Pathol Res Pract 183: 403–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jeffery PK, Brain APR (1988) Surface morphology of human airway mucosa, normal, carcinoma or cystic fibrosis. Scanning Microsc 2: 553–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Boysen M (1982) The surface structure of the human nasal mucosa. Virchows Arch [B] 40: 279294Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Roessler F, Grossenbacher R, Walt H (1988) Effects of tracheostomy on human tracheobronchial mucosa: a scanning electron microscopic study. Laryngoscope 98: 1261–1267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Andrews PM (1979) The respiratory system. In: Hodges GM, Hallowes RC (eds) Biomedical research applications of SEM, vol I. Academic, New York, pp 177–202Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. C. Braga
    • 1
  • G. Piatti
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro di Farmacologia Respiratoria, Facoltà di Medicina e ChirurgiaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations