What Is Clinical Relevance? - Well Controlled Experiments in Normal Animals as Compared to Clinical Studies in Diverse Sick Patients

  • A. E. Baue
Conference paper


There has been recent emphasis on performing animal studies that are clinically relevant. It has been said that some of the clinical trials of so-called “magic bullets” may not have been carried out if appropriate or relevant trials had been carried out beforehand in animals. Evidence-based or critical appraisal animal research has also been described [1]. This is an incredible expression because — what is research if it isn’t to provide evidence? It is now recommended also that we should practice evidence-based medicine [2].


Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Magic Bullet Yellow Fever Virus Perforated Diverticulitis Extracellular Acidosis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Piper RD, Cook DJ, Bone RC, Sibbald WJ (1996) Introducing critical appraisal to studies of animal models in investigating novel therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med 24(12):2059–2070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sackett DL, Rosenberg WMC (1995) The need for evidence-based medicine. J R Soc Med 88:620–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Deitch EA (1998) Animal models of sepsis and shock. A review and lessons learned. Shock 9(1):1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baue AE (1994) Organ dysfunction (MODS), organ failure (MOF) and therapeutic conundrums in injured and septic patients. In: A Gullo (ed) Sepsis and Organ Failure. Fogliazza, Milan 2:9–39Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wichterman KA, Baue AE, Chaudry IH (1980) Sepsis and septic shock — a review of laboratory models and a proposal. J Surg Res 29:189–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hinshaw L (1996) Mechanisms and therapy of endotoxin shock. Shock Tour Symposium Introductory Statement, Oklahoma State Med Assoc 59:407–484Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bauhofer A, Celik I, Gregor B et al (1977) Closing the gap between clinical trials and positive in vitro drug effects with randomized animal studies. Shock 5:47(A150)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baue AE (1980) New concepts in shock therapy: Some clinical adventures and misadventures. In: AM Lefer, TM Saba, LM Mela (eds) Advances in Shock Research 3:67–76Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wade CE, Kramer GC, Grady JJ et al (1997) Efficacy of hypertonic 7.5% saline and 6% dextran 70 in treating trauma: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical studies. Surgery 122:609–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hin MH, Kupfer Y, Tessler S (1997) Hemodynamic effects of tromethamine in the treatment of severe metabolic acidosis. Crit Care Med 25:A105(228)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grotz M, Regel G, Dwenger A et al (1995) A standardized large animal model of multiple organ failure after severe trauma. Unfallchirurg 98:63–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Redl H, Schlag G, Bahraim S et al (1996) Animal models as the basis of pharmacologic intervention in trauma and sepsis patients. World J Surg 20:487–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bordley J III, Harvey AM (1976) Two Centuries of American Medicine 1776–1996. W.B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jenner E (1976) Letter to CH Parry, M.D., June 21, 1798. In: Bordley J III, Harvey AM. Two Centuries of American Medicine 1776–1996. WB. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Enders JF, Weiler TH, Robbins FC (1949) Cultivation of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of various human embryonic tissues. Science 109:85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Medawar PB (1974) The new immunology. Hosp Prac 9:48Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Good RA, Finstod J (1967) The development and involution of the lymphoid system and immunologic capacity. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 79:69Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    McDevitt HO, Benacceraf B (1969) Genetic control of specific immune responses. Adv Immunol 11:31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Salk JE (1955) Vaccines for poliomyelitis. Sci Am 192:42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marks G, Beatty WK (1973) The Story of Medicine in America. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. E. Baue

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations