From Cytokines through Immune Effector Cells to the Body

  • M. R. Pinsky
Conference paper


All forms of severe insult to the body, from trauma, burns, sepsis, and pancreatitis are associated with the activation and systemic expression of host inflammatory pathways via stimulation of the host immune effector cells to synthesize and release potent mediators of cell inflammation [1], This generalized process is often referred to as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome(SIRS) [2] to identify the non-specific aspects of its expression. Although the initial mediators of this process are often cytokines produced specifically in response to a pro-inflammatory stimulus, subsequently a vast array of protein and lipid mediator species is expressed in a complex network that at present defies simple description [3, 4]. The initiating cytokine usually is tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) which induces a generalized up-regulation of the inflammatory cascades through binding to specific cell membrane receptors on immune competent cells.


Nitric Oxide Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Immune Effector Cell Endotoxin Tolerance Immune Competent Cell 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1999

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  • M. R. Pinsky

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