Advertisement

Vitamin C pp 1-11 | Cite as

Antioxidants and Human Health

  • H. Sies
  • W. Stahl
Conference paper

Abstract

Human health should be maintained from fertilization throughout life, and long-term exposure to potentially deleterious agents is obviously a factor in determining the function of the organism as well as the development of age-related degenerative diseases. Oxidants are potentially deleterious agents and, consequently, antioxidants play a role in the prevention of damage due to oxidants (for reviews on various aspects, see [1, 2]). Compounds known as antioxidants recently have been recognized as modulators of gene expression and of signal transduction pathways; these novel functions may not necessarily be based on the antioxidant properties, but rather on the function as ligands to regulatory proteins. The present contribution focuses first on oxidants, then on antioxidants; a previous review may be consulted [3].

Keywords

Reactive Oxygen Species Lipid Peroxidation Nitric Oxide Singlet Oxygen Peroxyl Radical 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sies H (ed) (1997) Antioxidants in disease mechanisms and therapy. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Halliwell B (1996) Antioxidants in human health and disease. Annu Rev Nutr 16:33–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sies H (1993) Strategies of antioxidant defense. Eur J Biochem 215:213–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chance B, Sies H, Boveris A (1979) Hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian organs. Physiol Rev 59:527–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sies H (1986) Biochemistry of oxidative stress. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 25:1058–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kappus H, Sies H (1981) Toxic drug effects associated with oxygen metabolism: redox cycling and lipid peroxidation. Experientia 37:1233–1241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sen CK (1995) Oxygen toxicity and antioxidants: state of the art. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 39:177–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schreck R, Baeuerle PA (1994) Assessing oxygen radicals as mediators in activation of inducible eukariotic transcription factor NF-kB. Methods Enzymol 234:151–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Briviba K, Klotz LO, Sies H (1997) Toxic and signaling effects of photochemically or chemically generated singlet oxygen in biological systems. Biol Chem 378:1259–1265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cadet J, Ravanat JL, Buchko GW, Yeo H, Ames BN (1994) Singlet oxygen DNA damage: chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of damage products. Methods Enzymol 234:79–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kanofsky JR (1989) Singlet oxygen production in biological systems. Chem Biol Interact 70:1–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beckman JS (1997) The physiological and pathological chemistry of nitric oxide. In: Lancaster J (ed) Nitric oxide. Principles and actions. Academic, San Diego, pp 1–82Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pryor WA, Squadrito GL, Friedman M (1995) The cascade mechanism to explain ozone toxicity: the role of lipid ozonation products. Free Rad Biol Med 19:935–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1989) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Levander OA, Burk RF (1996) Selenium. In: Ziegler E, Filer LJ (eds) Present knowledge in nutrition. ILSI, Washington, DC, pp 320–328Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sies H (1989) Biochemistry of thiol groups: the role of glutathione. Naturwissenschaften 76:57–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Svirbely JL, Szent-Györgyi A (1932) The chemical nature of vitamin C. Biochem J 26:865–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moss RW (1988) A free radical: Albert Szent-Györgyi and the battle over vitamin C. Paragon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Packer L, Fuchs J (eds) (1997) Vitamin C in health and disease. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harris JR (ed) (1996) Ascorbic acid: biochemistry and biomedical cell biology. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Davies MB, Austin J, Partridge DA (1991) Vitamin C. Its chemistry and biochemistry. Royal Society of Chemistry, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Levine M, Rumsey S, Wang Y, Park J, Kwon O, Xu W, Amano N (1996) Vitamin C. In Ziegler EE, Filer LJ (eds) Present knowledge in nutrition. ILSI, Washington, DC, pp 146–159Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Niki E, Tsuchiya J, Tanimura R, Kamiya Y (1982) Regeneration of vitamin E from alpha-chromanoxyl radical by glutathione and vitamin C. Chem Lett: 789–792Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Niki E (1987) Interaction of ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol. Ann NY Acad Sci 498:186–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wefers H, Sies H (1988) The protection by ascorbate and glutathione against microsomal lipid peroxidation is dependent on vitamin E. Eur J Biochem 174:353–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Traber MG, Sies H (1996) Vitamin E in humans: demand and delivery. Annu Rev Nutr 16:321–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kaiser S, Di Mascio P, Murphy ME, Sies H (1990) Physical and chemical quenching of singlet molecular oxygen by tocopherols. Arch Biochem Biophys 277:101–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Olson JA, Krinsky NI (1995) Introduction: the colorful fascinating world of carotenoids: important biological modulators. FASEB J 9:1547–1550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sies H, Krinsky NI (1995) The present status of antioxidant vitamins and beta-carotene. Am J Clin Nutr 62:1299S–1300SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sies H, Stahl W (1995) Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants. Am J Clin Nutr 62:1315S–1321SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Di Mascio P, Kaiser S, Sies H (1989) Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch Biochem Biophys 274:532–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kennedy TA, Liebler DC (1992) Peroxyl radical scavenging by beta-carotene in lipid bilayers. J Biol Chem 267:4658–4663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Burton GW, Ingold KU (1984) beta-Carotene: an unusual type of lipid antioxidant. Science 224:569–573Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rice-Evans CA, Sampson J, Bramley PM, Holloway DE (1997) Why do we expect carotenoids to be antioxidants in vivo? Free Rad Res 26:381–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ (1996) Antioxidant activities of flavonoids as bioactive components of food. Biochem Soc Transact 24:790–795Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Bolwell PG, Bramley PM, Pridham JB (1995) The relative antioxidant activity of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Rad Res 22:375–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Azzi A, Boscoboinik DO, Marilley D, Özer NK, Stäuble B, Tasinato A (1995) Vitamin E: a sensor and an information transducer of the cell oxidation state. Am J Clin Nutr 62:1337S–1346SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gerster H (1995) Beta-Carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C in different stages of experimental carcinogenesis. Eur J Clin Nutr 49:155–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bertram JS, Bortkiewicz H (1995) Dietary carotenoids inhibit neoplastic transformation and modulate gene expression in mouse and human cells. Am J Clin Nutr 62:1322S–1326SGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stahl W, Sies H (1996) Lycopene: a biologically important carotenoid for humans? Arch Biochem Biophys 336:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Taylor A (1993) Cataract: relationship between nutrition and oxidation. J Am Coll Nutr 12:138–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schalch W (1992) Carotenoids in the retina — a review of their possible role in preventing or limiting change caused by light and oxygen. In: Emerit I, Chance B (eds) Free radicals and aging. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 280–298Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Seddon JM, Ajani UA, Sperduto RD, Hiller R, Blair N, Burton TC, Farber MD, Gragoudas ES, Haller J, Miller DT, Yannuuzzi LA, Willett WC (1994) Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 272:1413–1420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Landrum JT, Bone RA, Kilburn MD (1997) The macular pigment: a possible role in protection from age-related macular degeneration. Adv Pharmacol 38:537–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kondo T (1996) Parkinson’s disease and free radicals. Ann NY Acad Sci 786:206–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Simonian NA, Coyle JT (1996) Oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 36:83–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Sies
    • 1
  • W. Stahl
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Physiologische Chemie I und Biologisch-Medizinisches ForschungszentrumHeinrich-Heine-Universität DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany

Personalised recommendations