Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

  • Z. Caramanos
  • A. C. Santos
  • S. J. Francis
  • S. Narayanan
  • D. Pelletier
  • D. L. Arnold
Part of the Topics in Neuroscience book series (TOPNEURO)


Approximately 85%-90% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) will begin their disease with a course of relapses and remissions and are therefore classified as having relapsing-remitting (RR) MS [1]. Some of these patients will eventually go on to develop a progressive disability that is characterized by a slow, irreversible deterioration over time, at which point they will be classified as having secondary progressive (SP) MS [1]. Interestingly, about 10%-15% of patients experience a progressive course, without any relapses or remissions, from the onset of their disease, and they are classified as having primary progressive (PP) MS [2].


Multiple Sclerosis Expand Disability Status Scale Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Expand Disability Status Scale Score 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Caramanos
  • A. C. Santos
  • S. J. Francis
  • S. Narayanan
  • D. Pelletier
  • D. L. Arnold

There are no affiliations available

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