New Frontiers in Uroangiographic Contrast Media

  • F. Stacul
Conference paper
Part of the Syllabus book series (SYLLABUS)


More than 70 years of research on contrast media (CM) had led to the synthesis of effective and extremely well-tolerated compounds. Moreover, we have achieved a deep knowledge of the design principles of CM molecule. We have learned that:
  1. -

    Nonionic contrast agents display lower toxicity than ionic agents.

  2. -

    Putting an iodine atom on a carrier molecule renders it more toxic.

  3. -

    More hydrophilic molecules are less toxic.

  4. -

    The nature of the carrier molecule substituents, other than iodines, may profoundly affect the overall toxicity.

  5. -

    Metrizamide has the lowest osmolality of any nonionic monomer commercially produced, but it is far from being the least toxic agent.

  6. -

    Being nonionic and having the lowest osmolality are still not enough to guarantee the lowest possible toxicity.

  7. -

    Iso-osmolal formulations of contrast agents still have measurable toxic effects [1].



Iodine Atom Ionic Agent Focal Liver Lesion Gadolinium DTPA Micronized Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dawson P (1995) Design plays major role in new contrast media. Diagn Imaging Eur [Suppl June 1995]: 3–4Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stacul F, Thomsen HS (1996) Nonionic monomers and dimers. Eur Radiol (in press)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosati G, Davies A, Spinazzi A (1996) Predictable and unpredictable adverse reactions to iomeprol and iopromide. Acad Radiol (in press)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grynne BH, Nossen JO, Bolstad B, Borch KW (1996) Main results of the first comparative clinical studies on Visipaque. Acta Radiol (in press)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Klow NE, Levorstad K, Berg KJ, Brodhal U, Endressen K, Kistoffersen DT, Laake B, Simonsen S, Tofte AJ, Lundby B (1993) Iodixanol in cardioangiography in patients with coronary artery disease. Acta Radiol 34: 72–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Adolph JMG, Engelkamp H, Herbig W, Peters PE, Wenzel-Hora BI (1995) Iotrolan in urography: efficacy and tolerance in comparison with iohexol and iopamidol. Eur Radiol 5 [Suppl 2]:S63–S68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clauss W, Dinger J, Meissner C (1995) Renal tolerance of iotrolan 280 — a meta-analysis of 14 double-blind studies. Eur Radiol 5 [Suppl 2]: S79–S84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Niendorf HP, Fritzsch T, Herrschaft G, Krause W, Muhler A, Schurmann R (1995) Looking into the future: iotrolan and beyond. Eur Radiol 5: S107–S111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Haen C (1995) CT and new contrast media widen diagnostic options. Diagn Imaging Eur [Suppl June 1995]: 32–33Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sovak M, Douglas III JG, Terry RC, Brown JW, Bakir F, Shibusawa Wasden T (1994) Blood pool radiopaque polymers. Design considerations. Invest Radiol [Suppl] 29: S271–S274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rubin DL, Desser TS, Qing F, Muller HH, Young SW, McIntire GL, Bacon E, Cooper E, Toner J (1994) Nanoparticulate contrast media. Blood-pool and liver-spleen imaging. Invest Radiol [Suppl] 29: S280–S283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Strande P (1994) Nycomed’s X-ray contrast media development; Visipaque and beyond. In: Twenty years on nonionic contrast media. Pioneers, Oslo, pp 11–13Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fritzsch T, Krause W, Weinmann HJ (1992) Status of contrast media research in MRI, ultrasound and X-ray. Eur Radiol 2: 2–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schild HH, Weber W, Boeck E, Mildenberger P, Strunk H, Duber C (1994) Gadolinium DTPA (Magnevist) als Konstrastmittel für die arterielle DSA. ROFO 160: 218–221Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Quinn AD, O’Hare NJ, Wallis FJ, Wilson GF (1994) Gd-DTPA: an alternative contrast medium for CT. J Comput Assist Tomogr 18: 634–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Stacul
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di RadiologiaOspedale di CattinaraTriesteItaly

Personalised recommendations