What Are the Acute and Long-Term Results of Transvenous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators?

  • G. Gasparini
  • A. Raviele
  • S. Themistoclakis
  • Italian Endotak Investigator Group
Conference paper


The clinical experience with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) has been limited for many years almost exclusively to devices requiring thoracotomy for placement of one or more epicardial electrodes. This has generated a significant perioperative mortality and morbidity (1,2) and has reduced the widespread clinical application of such a therapy. In the last few years, different transvenous systems have been developed and introduced into clinical practice (3–12). One of these systems (Endotak, CPI, St Paul, MN, USA) has been extensively evaluated in Italy since 1990 by means of a multicenter trial (37 centers). In this paper the results of this trial are reported.


Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation Inappropriate Shock Defibrillation Threshold 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Gasparini
    • 1
  • A. Raviele
    • 1
  • S. Themistoclakis
    • 1
  • Italian Endotak Investigator Group
    • 1
  1. 1.Divisione di CardiologiaOspedale Umberto IMestre-VeniceItaly

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