Cathartics and their combination

  • Giorgio Cittadini


By cathartic we mean any substance which, administered orally or, less commonly, in other ways, promotes or accelerates the emptying of the large intestine or of both the small and large intestines.


Bowel Preparation Barium Enema Ricinoleic Acid Double Contrast Barium Enema Magnesium Citrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Miller RE (1978) The clean colon: whose responsibility? AJR 131: 182–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Irwin JP, Peterson GH (1982) Colon preparation for the barium enema: A guide for the radiologist. Gastrointest Radiol 7: 75–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goodman LS, Gilman A (1980) The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan. p 1002–1012Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rosengren JE, Aberg T (1975) Cleansing the colon without enemas. Radiologe 15: 421–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gelfand DW, Chen MYM, Ott DJ (1991) Preparing the colon for the barium enema examination. Radiology 178: 609–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Palmer KR, Khan AN (1979) Oral mannitol: A simple and effective bowel preparation for barium enema. BMJ 2: 1038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee JR, Hares MM, Keighley MRB (1981) A randomized trial to investigate X-Prep, oral mannitol, and colonic washout for double contrast barium enema. Clin Radiol 32: 591–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Foord KD (1982) Oral mannitol as a preparation for double contrast barium enema. Clin Radiol 33: 467–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Foord KD, Morcos SK, Ward P (1983). A comparison of mannitol and magnesium citrate preparations for double-contrast barium enema. Clin Radiol 34: 309–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    MacFarlane EW (1966) The appearance of multinucleated cells in the urine after purgation. Acta Cytol 10: 104–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Welin S, Welin G (1976) The double contrast examination of the colon. Experience with the Welin modification. Stuttgart: Thieme pp 5–11Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oliva L, Cittadini G (1981) Il clisma a doppio contrasto: problemi metodologici e tecnici. Verona: CortinaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bakran A, Bradley JA, Breshnihan E et al (1977) Whole gut irrigation: An inadequate preparation for double contrast barium enema examination. Gastroenterology 73: 28–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miller RE (1976) The clean colon. Gastroenterology 70: 289–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Downing R, Dorricott NJ, Keighley MRB et al (1978) Modification of the physiological disturbance produced by whole gut irrigation by preliminary mannitol administration. Brit J Surg 65: 827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dodds WJ, Scanlon GT, Shaw DK et al (1977) An evaluation of colon cleansing regimens. AJR 128: 57–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reither M (1980) Erfahrungen mit Cascara-Salax bei der Vorbereitung von kindern zur kolonkontrastdarstellung. Roentgenbl 33: 418–421Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown GR (1961) A new approach to colon preparation for barium enema: preliminary report. Univ Mich Med Bull 27: 225–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Benson M, Harper J. A comparative double-blind trial of mannitol and magnesium citrate/bisacodyl (MCB) in the preparation of barium enema patients. Australas Radiol 1983; 27: 25–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shaw MRP, Tait KB (1983) A clinical comparison of bowel preparations prior to double contrast barium enema. Australas Radiol 27: 254–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jauch R, Hankwitz R, Beschke K et al (1975) Bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-pyridyl-2-methane: the common laxative principle of bisacodyl and sodium picosulphate. Arzneimittelforschung 25: 1896–1900Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    De Lacey G, Benson M, Wilkins R et al (1982) Routine colonic lavage is unnecessary for double contrast barium enemas in outpatients. BMJ 284: 1021–1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee JR, Ferrando JR. Variables in the preparation of the large intestine for double contrast barium enema examination. Gut 1984; 25: 69–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Swarbrick MJ, Collins MC, Moore DJ et al (1994) A comparative trial of magnesium citrate (Citramag) and Picolax for barium enema bowel preparation. Clin Radiol 49: 379–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chakraverty S, Hughes T, Keir MJ et al (1994) Preparation of the colon for double-contrast barium enema: Comparison of Picolax, Picolax with cleansing enema and Citramag (2 sachets)—A randomized prospective trial. Clin Radiol 49: 566–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee JR (1984) Combinations of laxatives for bowel preparation: Are they necessary? Clin Radiol 35: 461–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lai AKH, Kwok PCH, Man SW et al (1996) A blinded clinical trial comparing conventional cleansing enema, Pico-salax and Golytely for barium enema bowel preparation. Clin Radiol 51: 566–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McBride KD (1992) Sodium picosulphate: reaction or drug interaction? Clin Radiol 45: 290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lawrance JAL, Massoud TF, Creasy TS et al (1994) Colonic preparation with Picolax: patient tolerance and approaches to fluid replacement. Clin Radiol 49: 35–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gelfand DW, Chen YM, Ott DJ (1988) Colonic cleansing for radiographic detection of neoplasia: Efficacy of the magnesium citrate-castor oil-cleansing enema regimen. AJR 151: 705–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gelfand DW, Chen YM, Ott DJ (1991) Preparing the colon for the barium enema examination. Radiology 178: 609–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hewitt J, Rigby J, Reeve J et al (1973) Whole-gut irrigation in preparation for large-bowel surgery. Surgery Lancet 2: 337–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Levy AG, Benson JW, Hewlett E et al (1976) Saline lavage: a rapid, effective and acceptable method for cleansing the gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology 70: 157–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Davis GR, Santa Ana CA, Morawski SG et al (1980) Development of a lavage solution associated with minimal water and electrolyte absorption or secretion. Gastroenterology 78: 991–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fordtran JS, Santa Ana CA, Cleveland MB. A low sodium solution for gastrointestinal lavage. Gastroenterology 1990; 98: 11–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ernstoff JJ, Howard DA, Marshall JB et al (1983) A randomized blinded clinical trial of a rapid colonic lavage solution (Golytely) compared with standard preparation for colonoscopy and barium enema. Gastroenterology 84: 1512–1516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Davis GR, Smith HJ (1983) Double-contrast examination of the colon after preparation with Golytely (a balanced lavage solution). Gastrointest Radiol 8: 173–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Girard CM, Rugh KS, DiPalma JA et al (1984) Comparison of Golytely lavage with standard diet/cathartic preparation for double-contrast barium enema. AJR 142: 1147–1149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chan CH, Diner WC, Fontenot E et al. Randomized single-blind clinical trial of a rapid colonic lavage solution (Golytely) vs. standard preparation for barium enema and colonoscopy. Gastrointest Radiol 1985; 10: 378–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fitzsimons P, Shorvon P, Frost RA et al (1987) A comparison of Golytely and standard preparation for barium enema. J Can Assoc Radiol 38: 109–112Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tomlinson TL, DiPalma JA, Mangano FA. Comparison of a new colon lavage solution (Golytely-RSS) with a standard preparation for air-contrast barium enema. AJR 1988; 151: 947–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Thoeni R. More on Golytely (1982) Gastroenterology 83: 729–730Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Battolla R, Catterina A, Cavalleri MG et al (1996) Il clisma monocontrasto previo lavaggio del colon nel paziente anziano. Radiol Med 91: 610–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cittadini G, Sardanelli F, De Cicco E et al (1998) Intestinal preparation to double-contrast barium enema: a new combination of sennosides with a colonic lavage solution (SELG®). Clin Radiol (in press)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lazzaroni M, Petrillo M, Desideri S, Bianchi Porro G. (1993) Efficacy and tolerability of polyethylene glycol —electrolyte lavage solution with and without simethicone in the preparation of patients with inflammatory bowel disease for colonoscopy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 7: 655–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giorgio Cittadini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Genoa School of Medicine San Martino HospitalGenoaItaly

Personalised recommendations