From Human Action to Data: Man-Machine Interface in Manual Data Entries

  • G. H. Metnitz


Intensive care units (ICUs) are increasingly confronted with incredibly large amounts of data originating from diagnostic and therapeutic devices as well as from clinical documentation. Patient Data Management Systems (PDMS) or Intensive Care Information Systems (ICIS) (1) are speciahzed to collect, visualize and store clinical patient data such as demographics, vital parameters, doctors and nurses plans and notes. Moreover, they are able to facilitate complex calculations for input-output balances, hemodynamic parameters and clinical scores and to support medical decision making through displaying trends and graphs of the patient’s course. The man-machine interface builds the base of the interaction between the information system and the user. Its design and implementation plays a large role when defining useabihty and practicability of an applied system.


User Performance Patient Data Management System Intensive Care Unit Outcome Manual Data Entry Intensive Care Information System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Stoutenbeck CP (1994) Dutch specification study of an Intensive Care Information System. In: Vincent JL (1994) Yearbook of intensive care and emergency medicine. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Piaget J (1954) The construction of reahty in the child. Basic Books, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lynch PJ (1994) Visual design for the user interface, part 1: design fundamentals. J Biocommun 21(l):22–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dillon A (1992) Reading from paper versus screens: a critical review of the empirical literature. Ergonomics 35(10):1297–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kuan Goh S, Coury BG (1994) Incorporating the effect of display formats in cognitive modelling. Ergonomics 37(4):725–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miller GA (1956) The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychol Rev 63(2):81–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cole WG, Stewart JG (1993) Metaphor graphics to support integrated decision making with respiratory data. Int J Clin Monit Comput 10:91–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Staggers N, Mills ME (1994) Nurse-computer interaction: staff performance outcomes. Nursing Res 43(3): 144–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chase CR, Ashikaga T, Mazuzan JE (1994) Measurement of user performance and attitude assists the initial design of a computer user display and orientation method. J Clin Monit 10: 251–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vestrup JA (1992) Critical care audit. Can J Anaesth 39(3):210–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vassar MJ, Holcroft JW (1994) The case against using the APACHE system to predict intensive care unit outcome in trauma patients. Crit Care Clin 10(1): 117–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Friesdorf W, Konichezky S, Gro-Alltag F, Fattroth A, Schwilk B (1994) Data quality of bedside monitoring in an intensive care unit. Int J Monit Comput 11(2): 123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cunningham S, Symon AG, Mcintosh N (1994) The practical management of artifact in computerised physiological data. Int J Clin Monit Comput 11:211–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Metnitz PGH, Lenz K (1995) Patient data management systems in intensive care — the situation in Europe. Intensive Care Med (in press)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Metnitz PhGH, Laback P, Popow C, Laback O, Lenz K, Hiesmayr M (1995) Computer assisted data analysis in intensive care: the IC DEV project — development of a scientific database system for Intensive Care. Int J Clin Monit Comput (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. H. Metnitz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations