Advertisement

Prehospital Care for Severe Trauma Patients: What Do We Mean by ALS?

  • G. Nardi
  • A. De Monte

Abstract

The reduction of trauma morbidity and mortality is one of the priorities of all health services around the world. In the USA injuries cause the loss of more years of life than do cancer and heart disease combined and the total injury-related costs are higher than the costs of any other disease process (1). Two of the most effective ways of combating this public health problem are prevention and the establishment of a trauma system.

Keywords

Trauma Patient Injured Patient Blunt Trauma Trauma Care Cervical Spine Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Trunkey DD, Blaisdell WF (1988) Epidemiology of trauma. In: Wilmore WD (ed) Care of the surgical patients. Sci Am 6:1–7Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cales RH (1984) Trauma mortality in Orange County: the effect of implementation of a regional trauma system. Ann Emerg Med 13:15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sampalis JS, Lavoie A, Williams JI et al (1993) Impact of on-site care, prehospital time and level of in-hospital care on survival in severely injured patients. J Trauma 34:(2) 256–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Demetriades D, Belzberg H, Asensio J et al (1995) The impact of a dedicated trauma program on outcome in severely injured patients. Arch Surg 130:216–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daly KE, Thomas PR (1992) Trauma deaths in the South West Thames region. Injury 23(6): 393–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gorman DF, Teanby DN, Sinha MP et al (1995) The epidemiology of major injuries in Mersey region and North Wales. Injury 26(l):51–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Delooz HH (1991) Organization and implementation of emergency services in the treatment of major trauma. J Neurotrauma 8 [Suppl 1]:S1-S6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nardi G, Massarutti D, Muzzi R et al (1994) Impact of emergency medical hehcopter service on mortality for trauma in North-East Italy. A regional prospective audit. Eur J Emerg Med (l):69–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lerer LB, Knottenbelt JD (1994) Preventable mortality following sharp penetrating chest trauma. J Trauma 37 (1):6–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buckman RF, Badellino MM, Mauro LH et al (1993) Penetrating cardiac wounds: prospective study of factors influencing initial resuscitation. J Trauma 34 (5):717–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schmidt U, Frame SB, Nerlich M et al (1992) On-scene helicopter transport of patients with multiple injuries-comparison of a German and an American system. J Trauma 33:4(548–553)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Spaite Dw, Tse DJ, Valenzuela TD et al (1991) The impact of injury severity and prehospital procedures on scene time in victims of major trauma. Ann Emerg Med 20(12): 1299–1305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    National Safety Council (1986) Accident facts. Chicago, IlhnoisGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McNicholl BP (1994) The golden hour and prehospital trauma care. Injury 25:251–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Champion RH, Sacco W (1991) Triage of trauma victims. In: Trunkey D, Lewis F (eds) Current therapy of trauma. Lewitt, Philadelphia, pp 97–103Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Oswalt JL, Hedges JR, Soifer BE (1992) Analysis of trauma intubations AM. J Emerg Med 10(6):(511–514)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vilke GM, Hoyt DB, Epperson M et al (1994) Intubation techniques in the helicopter. J Emerg Med 12(2):217–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support program for Physicians (1993) Instructor manual. ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Criswell JC, Parr MJA (1994) Emergency airway management in patients with cervical spine injuries. Anaesthesia 49:900–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nardi G, Massarutti D, Giordano F et al (1994) Interhospital transport for severe trauma patients. Mutz NJ, Koller W, Benzer H (eds) Proceeding of the European Congress on Intensive Care Medicine. Monduzzi, Bologna, pp 631–639Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kaweski SM, Sise MJ, Virgiho RW (1990) The effect of prehospital fluids on survival in trauma patients. J Trauma 30:1215–1218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith JP, Boday BI, Hill AS et al (1985) Prehospital stabilization of critically injured patients: a failed concept. J Trauma 25:65–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bickell WH, Wall MJ, Pepe PE (1994) Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries. N Engl J Med 331:1105–1109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stern SA, Dronen SC, Birren P (1993) Effect of blood pressure on hemorrhage, volume and survival in a near-fatal hemorrhage model incorporating a vascular injury. Ann Emerg Med 22:155–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schwab CW (1993) Violence: America’s uncivil war-presidential address. Sixth scientific assembly of the eastern association for the surgery of trauma. J Trauma 35:657–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chestnut RM, Marshall LF, Klauber MR (1992) The role of secondary brain injury in determining outcome from severe head injury. J Trauma 34:216–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Scalea TM, Maltz S, Yelon J et al (1994) Resuscitation of multiple trauma and head injury: role of crystalloid fluids and inotropes. Crit Care Med 22:1610–1615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    American College of Surgeons (1988) Traumatic shock. Adv Trauma Life Support 125–130Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Krausz MM (1995) Controversies in shock research: hypertonic resuscitation. Pros and Cons. Shock 3:69–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mattox KL, Maningas PA, Moore EE et al (1991) Prehospital hypertonic saline/dextran infusion for post-traumatic hypotension. The USA multicenter Trial. Ann Surg 213(5): 482–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vassar MJ, Perry CA, Holcroft JW (1993) Prehospital resuscitation of hypotensive trauma patients with 7.5% NaCl with added dextran: a controlled trial. J Trauma 34(5):622–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pitera R, Hershman Z, Cardoso R et al (1994) The potential for venous air embolism from one liter crystalloids bags. Crit Care Med 22:1(A21)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nardi G, Di Silvestre A, Peressutti R et al (1995) II trauma vertebro midollare: strategia e rischi delle manovre di estrinsecazione. In: L’emergenza sanitaria in Italia. Peris A (ed). Signa, pp 97–108Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Nardi
  • A. De Monte

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations