Advertisement

Pharmacological and Pharmacokinetic Basis of Chlamydia pneumoniae Treatment

  • Giuliana Gialdroni Grassi

Abstract

Chlamydia pneumoniae,such as other Chlamydia species, is an obligate intracellular parasite. To inhibit its growth it is necessary that the antimicrobial agent penetrates cells and can interfere with protein synthesis of the micro-organism. Therefore antibiotics that are likely to be active against Chlamydia pneumoniae are macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, quinolones and rifampicin, which have demonstrated the capacity to enter cells and develop antimicrobial activity intracellularly for Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis, as well as for other pathogens.

Keywords

Alveolar Macrophage Antimicrob Agent Chlamydia Trachomatis Minimal Inhibitory Concen Bronchial Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Johnson JD, Hand WL, Francis JB, King-Thompson NK, Corwin RW (1980) Antibiotic uptake by alveolar macrophages. J Lab Clin Med 95: 429–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Prokesch RC, Hand WL (1982) Antibiotic entry into polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 21: 373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tulkens PM (1991) Intracellular pharmacokinetics and localization of antibiotics as predictors of their efficacy against intraphagocytic infections. Scand J Infect Dis [Suppl 741: 209–217Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tulkens PM (1991) Intracellular distribution and activity of antibiotics. Eur J Clin Infect Dis 10 (2): 100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peters DH, Clissod SP (1992) Clarithromycin. A review of its antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetic property and therapeutic potential. Drugs 44: 117–164Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cartier MB, Zenebergh A, Tulkens PM (1987) Cellular uptake and subcellular distribution of roxithromycin and erythromycin in phagocytic cells. J Antimicrob Chemother 20 [Suppl B1: 47–56Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fraschini F, Scaglione F, Pintucci, G Maccarinelli G et al (1991) The diffusion of clarithromycin and roxithromycin into nasal mucosa, tonsil and in lung in humans. J Antimicrob Chemother 27 [Suppl A]: 61–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bergogne-Bérézin E (1993) Tissue distribution of dirithromycin: comparison with erythromycin. J Antimicrob Chemother 31 [Suppl C]: 77–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anderson R, Joone G, van Rensburg CEJ (1988) An in vitro evaluation of the cellular uptake and intraphagocytic bioactivity of clarithromycin (A-56268, TE-031), a new macrolide antimicrobial agent. J Antimicrobial Chemother 22: 923–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    MacDonald PJ, Pruul H (1991) Phagocyte uptake and transport of azithromycin. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 10: 828–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Foulds G, Shepard RM, Johnson RB (1990) The pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in human serum and tissues. J Antimicrob Chemother 25 [Suppl A1: 73–82Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bergogne-Bérézin E (1981) Penetration of antibiotics into the respiratory tree. J Antimicrob Chemother 8: 171–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smith BR, LeFrock JL (1983) Bronchial tree penetration of antibiotic. Chest 83(6): 904908Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Valcke Y, Pauwels R, Van Den Straeten M (1990) Pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in the lung. Eur Respir J 3: 715–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baldwin DR, Honeybourne D, Wise R (1992) Pulmonary disposition of antimicrobial agents: in vivo observations and clinical relevance. Antimicrob Agents and Chemother 36 (6): 1176–1180Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gialdroni Grassi G (1980) Passaggio degli antibiotici nelle secrezioni bronchiali. In: Gialdroni Grassi G and Grassi C (eds). Aggiornamenti di chemioterapia. La Goliardica Pavese Publ., Pavia, pp 68–88Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gerdin DN, H.H.J.A (1989) Tissue penetration of the new quinolones in humans. Rev Infect Dis 11 [Suppl 5]: S1046 - S1057Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baldwin DR, Wise R, Andrews JM, Ashby JP et al (1990) Azithromycin concentrations at the sites of pulmonary infection. Eur Respir J 3: 886–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Andrews JM, Honeybourne D, Greaves I, Baldwin D et al (1992) Clarithromycin levels in human bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and serum. 8th Mediterranean Congress of Chemotherapy Athens, Greece Abs. 714Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baldwin DR, Honeybourne D, Wise R (1992) Pulmonary disposition of antimicrobial agents: methodological consideration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36: 1171–1175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gump DW (1991) Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for some atypical microrganisms: Chlamydiae, Mycoplasms, Rickettsia, and Spirochetes. In: Lorian V (ed) Antibiotic in laboratory medicine. 3rd Ed, Williams & Wilkins, pp 279–294Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Welsh LE, Gaydos CA, Quinn TC (1992) In vitro evaluation of activities of azithromycin, erythromycin and tetracyclines against Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36:291–294Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cooper MA, Baldwin D, Matthews RS, Andrews JM, Wise R (1991) In vitro susceptibility of Chlamydia pneumoniae ( TWAR) to seven antibiotics. J Antimicrob Chemother 2: 407–413Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roblin PM, Hammerschlag MR (1990) In vitro activity of sparfloxacin (CI-978, AT 4140) and other quinolones against Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. 30th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ICAAC, Atlanta Abs 22Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kuo CC, Grayston JT (1988) In vitro drug susceptibility of Chlamydia sp. strain TWAR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 32:257–258Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Atmar RL, Greenberg SB (1989) Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and the TWAR agent. Seminars in Respiratory Infections 4: 19–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bourke SJ (1993) Chlamydial respiratory infections. British Med J 306: 1219–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fenelon LE, Mumtaz G, Ridgway GL (1990) The in vitro susceptibility of Chlamydia pneumoniae. J Antimicrob Chemother 26: 763–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chirwing K, Roblin PM, Hammerschlag MR (1989) In vitro susceptibilities of Chlamydia pneumoniae Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1634–1635Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Orfila J, Haider F (1992) In vitro susceptibilities of Chlamydia pneumoniae strain IOL 207 against clarithromycin, compared to different molecules. In: Adam D, Lode H, Rubinstein E (eds) Recent Advances in Chemotherapy. Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Chemotherapy Berlin, Futuramed Publisher, Munich, Germany, pp 2454–2455Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hammerschlag MR, Qumei KK, Roblin PM (1992) In vitro activities of azithromycin, clarithromycin, L-ofloxacin and other antibiotics against Chlamydia pneumoniae Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36:1573–1574Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Soejima R, Niki Y, Kishimoto T, Kimura M, Kubota Y (1994) Anti-chlamydial activities of newly developed fluoroquinolones and their clinical usefulness for Chlamydia respiratory infections. 5th Int Symposium on new quinolones, Singapore, Abs 135Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ridgway GL, Mumtaz G, Fenelon L (1991) In vitro activity of clarithromycin and other macrolides against the type strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae J Antimicrob Chemother 27 [Suppl A1:43–45Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Roblin PM, Montalban G, Hammerschlag MR (1994) Susceptibilities of isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae from children with pneumonia to clarithromycin and erythromycin. 2nd International Conference on the macrolides, azalides and streptogamins, Venice, Italy, Abs 150Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Orfila F, Haider F (1990) In vitro susceptibility of Chlamydia pneumoniae (strain IOL 207) against a new fluoroquinolone, sparfloxacin, compared to different other molecules. 30th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ICAAC, Atlanta, Georgia, October 21–24, 1990, Abs 18Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hammerschlag MR, Hyman CL, Roblin PM (1992) In vitro activities of five quinolones against Chlamydia pneumoniae Antimicrob Agents Chemother 36:682–683Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Orfila J, Haider F (1992) In vitro susceptibility of Chlamydia pneumoniae strain IOL 207 against temafloxacin compared to different other molecules. In: Adam D, Lode H, Rubinstein E (eds) Recent Advances in Chemotherapy. Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Chemotherapy, Berlin 1991, vol II, pp 2344–45, Futuramed Publisher, Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Andrews JM, Wise R, Brenwald N (1993) In vitro activity of BAY3118. VI Eur Congress Clin Microbiol and Infect Dis, Seville, March 28–31, 1993, Abs 4Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Roblin PM, Montalban G, Hammerschlag MR (1994) In vitro activities of OPC-17116, a new quinolone, ofloxacin and sparfloxacin against Chlamydia pneumoniae Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:1402–1403Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dumornay W, Mandel L, Smith P, Schacter J (1992) Persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae following acute respiratory illness. Clin Infect Dis 14: 178–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kobayashi H (1986) Clinical evaluation of ofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections. Infection 14 [Suppl4]: S279–5282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lipsky BA, Tack KJ, Kuo CC, Wang SP (1990) Ofloxacin treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae (strain TWAR) lower respiratory tract infections. Am J Med 89: 722–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nakata K, Okazaki Y, Hattori H, Nakamura S (1994) Protective effect of sparfloxacin in experimental pneumonia caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae in leukopenic mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38: 1757–1762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Aubier M, Garau J, Geslin P, Grassi C, Hosie G, Huchon G, Legakis N, Lode H, Regamey C and the European Study Group (1994) Sparfloxacin: an empiric therapy in community-acquired pneumonia. A meta-analysis of two comparative studies. 6th Int Congress for Infect Dis, Prague, April 26–30, 1994, Abs 459Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuliana Gialdroni Grassi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations