Advertisement

Epidemiology

  • Roberto Cosentini
  • Paolo Tarsia
  • Francesco Blasi

Abstract

Chlamydia pneumoniae has recently been recognized as a relevant cause of respiratory tract infections [1, 2]. It has been classified as a third species of Chlamydia genus by means of ultrastructural and DNA homology analysis [3].

Keywords

Chlamydia Psittaci Chlamydia Genus Titre Rise Family Outbreak Strain TWAR 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Thom DH, Grayston JT (1991) Infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TWAR. Clin Chest Med 12: 245–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marrie TJ (1993) Chlamydia pneumoniae. Thorax 48:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Grayston JT, Kuo CC, Campbell LA, Wang SP (1989) Chlamydia pneumoniae sp. nov. for Chlamydia sp. strain TWAR. Int J Sys Bacteriol 39: 88–90Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grayston JT, Campbell LA, Kuo CC, Mordhorst CH, Saikku P, Thom DH, Wang SP (1990) A new respiratory tract pathogen: Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TWAR. J Infect Dis 161: 618–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beaty CD, Grayston JT, Wang SP, Kuo CC, Reto CS, Martin TR (1991) Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TWAR infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 144: 1408–1410Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blasi F, Legnani D, Lombardo VM et al (1993) Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in acute-20 R. Cosentini et al. exacerbations of COPD. Eur Respir J 6: 19–22Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saikku P (1992) The epidemiology and significance of Chlamydia pneumoniae. J Infect 25: 27–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kleemola M, Saikku P, Visakorpi R, Wang SP, Grayston JT (1988) Epidemics of pneumonia caused by TWAR, a new Chlamydia organism, in military trainees in Finland. J Infect Dis 157: 230–236Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marrie TJ, Grayston JT, Wang SP, Kuo CC (1987) Pneumonia associated with TWAR strain of chlamydia. Ann Intern Med 106: 507–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blasi F, Cosentini R, Clerici Shoeller M, Lupo A, Allegra L (1993) Chlamydia pneumoniae seroprevalence in immunocompetent and immunocompromised populations in Milan. Thorax 48: 1261–1263Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Saikku P, Ruutu P, Leinonen M, Panelius J, Tupasi TE, Grayston JT (1988) Acute lowerrespiratory-tract infection associated with Chlamydia TWAR antibody in Filipino children. J Infect Dis 158: 1095–1907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Augenbraun MH, Roblin MR, Chirwing K, Landman D, Hammerschlag MR (1991) Isolation of Chlamydia pneumoniae from lungs of patients infected with the human immonodeficiency virus. J Clin Microbiol 29: 401–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clark R, Mushatt D, Fazal B (1991) Case Report: Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia in an HIV- infected man. Am J Med Sci 302 (3): 155–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gaydos CA, Flower CL, Gill VJ, Eiden JJ, Quinn TC (1993) Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoessay in an immunocompromised population. Clin Infect Dis 17: 718–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pether JVS, Wang SP, Grayston JT (1989) Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TWAR as the cause of an outbreak in a boys’ school previously called psittacosis. Epidemiol Infect 103: 395–400Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yamazaki T, Nakada H, Sakurai N, Kuo CC, Wang SP, Grayston JT (1990) Transmission of Chlamydia pneumoniae in young children in a Japanese family. J Infect Dis 162: 13901392Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mordhorst CH, Wang SP, Grayston JT (1992) Outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in four farm families. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 11: 617–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aldous MB, Grayston JT, Wang SP (1992) Seroepidemiology of Chlamydia pneumoniae TWAR infection in Seattle families, 1966–1979. J Infect Dis 166: 646–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Blasi F, Cosentini R, Denti F, Allegra L (1994) Two family outbreaks of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Eur Respir J 7: 102–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hahn DL, Dodge RW, Golubjatnikov R (1991) Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae (strain TWAR) infection with wheezing, asthmatic bronchitis, and adult-onset asthma. JAMA 266: 225–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bruu AL, Haukenes G, AAsen S, Grayston JT, Wang SP, Klausen OG, Myrmel H, Hasseltvedt V (1991) Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in Norway 1981–87 earlier diagnosed as ornithosis. Scand J Infect Dis 23: 299–304Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haidl S, Ivarsson S, Bjerre I, Persson K (1992) Guillain-Barré syndrome after Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. N Engl J Med 326: 576–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marrie TJ, Harczy M, Mann OE (1990) Culture-negative endocarditis probably due to Chlamydia pneumoniae. J Infect Dis 161: 127–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Groenhagen-Riska C, Saikku P, Riska H (1988) Antibodies to TWAR- a novel type of Chlamydia in sarcoidosis. In: Grassi C, Rizzato G, Pozzi E (eds) Sarcoidosis and granulo-matous disorders. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 297–301Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Saikku P, Leinonen M, Mattila K, Ekman MR, Nieminen MS, Makela PH, Huttunen JK, Valtonen V (1988) Serological evidence of an association of a novel Chlamydia, TWAR, with coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 11: 983–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saikku P, Leinonen M, Tenkanen L, Linnanmaki E, Ekman MR, Manninen V, Manttari M, Frick MH, Huttunen JK (1992) Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. Ann Intern Med 116: 273–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shor A, Kuo CC, Patton DL (1992) Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in coronary arterial fatty-streaks and atheromatous plaques. S Afr Med J 82: 158–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thom DH, Grayston JT, Siskovick DS, Wang SP, Weiss NS, Daling JR (1992) Association of prior infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease. JAMA 268: 68–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Linnanmaki E, Leinonen M, Mattila K, Nieminen MS, Valtonen V, Saikku P (1993) Specific circulating immune complexes in patients with chronic coronary heart diseases. Circulation 87: 1130–1134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grayston JT (1992) Infections caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TWAR. Clin Infect Dis 15: 757–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Saikku P (1991) Problems in diagnosis of chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. In Vaheri A, Tilton RC, Balows A (eds) Rapid methods and automation in miscrobiology and immunology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 309–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Blasi F, Boschini A, Cosentini R, Legnani D, Smacchia C, Ghira C, Allegra L (in press) Outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in an ex injection-drug users community. ChestGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Saikku P, Wang SP, Kleemola M, Brander E, Rusanen E, Grayston JT (1985) An epidemic of mild pneumonia due to an unusual Chlamydia psittaci strain. J Infect Dis 151: 832–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang SP, Grayston JT (1986) Microimmunofluorescence serological studies with TWAR organism. In: Oriel JD, Ridgway G, Schachter J, Taylor-Robinson D, Ward M (eds) Chlamydial infections. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 329–332Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fang GD, Fine M, Orloff J, Arisumi D et al (1990) New and emerging etiologies for community-acquired pneumonia with implications for therapy. Medicine 69: 307–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Blasi F, Cosentini R, Legnani D, Denti F, Allegra L (1993) Incidence of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae in Italian patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 12: 696–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Huovinen P, Lahtonen R, Ziegler T, Meurman O et al (1989) Pharyngitis in adults: the presence and the coexistence of viruses and bacterial organisms. Ann Intern Med 110: 612 – 616Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ogawa H, Fujisawa T, Kazuyama Y (1990) Isolation of Chlamydia pneumoniae from middle ear aspirates of otitis media with effusion: a case report. J Infect Dis 162: 1000–1001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Girjes AA, Carrick FN, Lavin MF (1994) Remarkable sequence relatedness in the DNA encoding the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia psittaci (koala type-I) and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Gene 138 (1–2): 139–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Cosentini
  • Paolo Tarsia
  • Francesco Blasi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations