Functional MRI pp 115-118 | Cite as

fMRI of the Brain with Medium Field Strength Units

  • M. Gallucci
  • C. Micheli
  • G. P. Cardone
  • G. B. Minio Paluello
  • M. Castrucci
Conference paper
Part of the Syllabus book series (SYLLABUS)


In the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has played the main role in the study of diseases affect­ing the central nervous system (CNS). The main limita­tions of the first commercial units were predominantly represented by long acquisition times and low spatial resolution. The dramatic technological developments of the 1990’s have made it possible to overcome these lim­itations by selectively enhancing each parameter influ­encing the magnetic resonance (MR) signal, and have paved the way to functional studies with medium field units.


Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Gradient Echo Contrast Agent Concentration Paramagnetic Contrast Agent Contrast Agent Bolus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sorensen GA, Rosen B (1996). Functional MRI of the brain. In: Atlas SW (ed) MRI of the brain and spine, 2nd edn. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 1501–1545Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Belliveau JW, Rosen BR, Kantor HL, et al. (1990) Functional cerebral imaging by susceptibility-contrast NMR. Magn Reson Med; 14: 538–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosen BR, Belliveau JW, Vevea JM, Brady TJ (1990) Perfusion imaging with NMR contrast agents. Magn Reson Med; 14: 249–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gomori JM, Grossman RI Goldberg H, et al. (1985) Intracranial hematoma: imaging by highfield MR. Radiology; 157: 87–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Villringer A, Rosen BR, Belliveau JW, et al. (1988) Dynamic imaging with lanthanide chelates in normal brain: contrast due to magnetic susceptibility effects. Magn Reson Med; 6: 164–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fisel CR, Ackerman JL, Buxton RB, et al. (1991) MR contrast due to microscopically heterogeneous magnetic susceptibility: numerical simulations and applications to cerebral physiology. Magn Reson Med; 17: 336–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weisskoff R, Chesler D, Boxerman J, Rosen B (1993) Pitfalls in MR measurement of tissue blood flow with intravascular tracers: which mean transit time? Magn Reson Med; 29: 553–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boxerman JL, Weisskoff RM, Hoppel BE, Rosen BR (ABS) Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Twelth Annual Scientific Meeting, New York, Aug. 10–17, 1993: 117Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schneider W, Noll DC, Cohen JD (1993) Functional magnetic resonance of the cortical ribbon in human vision with conventional MRI scanners. Nature 365: 150–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shulman RG, Blamire AM, Rothman DL, et al. (1993) Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of human brain function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 3127–3133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ogawa S, Lee TM, Nayak AS, Glynn P (1990) Oxygenation-sensitive contrast in magnetic resonance image of rodent brain at high magnetic fields. Magn Reson Med; 14: 68–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Turner R, Le Bihan D, Moonen CT, Despres D, Frank J (1991) Echo-planar time course MRI of cat brain oxygenation changes. Magn Reson Med; 22: 159–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kwong KK, Belliveau JW, Chesler DA, et al. (1992) Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 89: 5675–5679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beltramello A, Viola G, Borsato A, et al. (1995) Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Functional rationale and magnet applications for clinical use. Rivista di Neuroradiologia 8: 345–370Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aronen H, Gazit I, Pardo F, et al. (ABS) Multislice MRI CBV imaging of the brain tumors: a comparison with PET studies. Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Twelth Annual Scientific Meeting, New York, Aug. 10–17, 1993: 119Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jack C Jr, Thompson RM, Butts RK, et al. (1994) Sensory motor cortex: correlation of presurgical mapping with functional MR imaging and invasive cortical mapping. Radiology; 190: 85–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gueckel F, Brix G, Schmiedek P, Piepgras A, Becker G, Koepke J (ABS) Assesment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity in patients with cerebrovascular disorders by using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR imaging and the acetozolamide stimulation test. RSNA, 81th Annual Scientific Meeting, Chicago, 25 Nov. 1 Dec. 1995: 168Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Righini A, De Vitiis O, Prinster A, et al. (1995) Functional magnetic resonance: primary motor cortex, localization in patients with brain neoplasm. Rivista di Neuroradiologia 8: 371–381Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Gallucci
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. Micheli
    • 1
  • G. P. Cardone
    • 2
  • G. B. Minio Paluello
    • 2
  • M. Castrucci
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Ospedale Santa Maria di CollemaggioUniversity of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Radiology, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere ScientificoS. Raffaele HospitalRomaItaly

Personalised recommendations