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High Field Functional MRI in Humans: Applications to Cognitive Function

  • K. R. Thulborn
  • J. Voyvodic
  • B. McCurtain
  • J. Gillen
  • S. Chang
  • M. Just
  • P. Carpenter
  • J. A. Sweeney
Part of the Syllabus book series (SYLLABUS)

Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology at field strengths up to 1.5 T is mature after many years of experience by manufacturers in providing a clinically acceptable level of performance. The MRI technique is the accepted modality of choice for neuroimaging when the question of structural abnormality is raised. The development of functional MRI (fMRI) offers potential for developing clinical applications in which brain function as well as anatomy are examined [1]. The presumed mechanism on which most current fMRI is based is the increased MR signal that arises from the increased blood flow that occurs with increased neuronal activity. The increased flow, out of proportion to the tissue oxygen utilization, increases the net tissue blood oxygenation [2] thereby decreasing the magnetic susceptibility-induced transverse relaxation caused by deoxygenated blood. This has been termed blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast [3]. Such signal changes in the microvasculature are small (1–5%), and therefore always limited by the available signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Strategies to improve the reliability of such measurements for clinical applications would be useful.

Keywords

Field Strength Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Superior Temporal Gyrus Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging General Electric Medical System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

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    Roy C, Sherrington C (1890) On the regulation of the blood-supply of the brain. J Physiol (London) 11: 85–108Google Scholar
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    Ogawa S, Lee T, Nayak A, Glynn P (1990) Oxygenation-sensitive contrast in magnetic resonance image of rodent brain at high magnetic fields. Magn Reson Med 14: 68–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. R. Thulborn
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Voyvodic
    • 1
  • B. McCurtain
    • 2
  • J. Gillen
    • 1
  • S. Chang
    • 1
  • M. Just
    • 3
  • P. Carpenter
    • 3
  • J. A. Sweeney
    • 2
  1. 1.MR Research Center, Departments of RadiologyUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterUSA
  2. 2.MR Research Center, Departments of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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