Human Brain Mapping: State of the Art
Human brain mapping (HBM) is a research field that has considerably evolved over the past five years. Since the pioneering work of Paul Broca  and up to the 1970’s our knowledge on the implementation of cognitive functions has relied on studies of patients bearing brain lesions. Not underestimating the teaching of neuropsychology, one has to acknowledge the fundamental limits of this approach such as, for example, the extreme variability between patients in the lesion site and the extent of functional recovery. Within this context, the first cerebral blood flow maps obtained under brain activation in rodents by H. Kennedy and L. Sokoloff can be considered as a milestone. Application of this method in man occured in the early 1970’s using radioactive xenon and external detectors  but this first attempt was limited both by the limited spatial resolution of the apparatus and by the absence of reference to brain anatomy.
KeywordsEuropean Union Brain Disorder Near Infrared Spectroscopy Functional Mapping Brain Anatomy
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