Management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

  • M. Pennazio
  • F. P. Rossini


Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is most commonly defined as acute or chronic blood loss, intermittent or continuous, with iron-deficiency anemia and heme-positive stool. The source of bleeding is still undetected in 3% to 5% of patients even after thorough upper and lower endoscopy. Bleeding is more likely to continue in these patients, and the site of bleeding may be in the small bowel or, less frequently, the biliary tree or the pancreas. In the small bowel, the most frequent cause of bleeding (70–80%) is secondary to single, sporadic or, more rarely, diffuse angiodysplasias. The second-most-common source is primitive or metastatic neoplasias (Table 1).


Small Bowel Islet Cell Tumor Small Bowel Tumor Total Colonoscopy Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Suggested reading

  1. Pennazio M, Rossini FP (1998) Main issues in push enteroscopy. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 30:96–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Peterson WL (1988) Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Med Clin N Am 72:1169–1176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Rossini FP, Arrigoni A, Pennazio M (1996) Clinical enteroscopy. J Clin Gastroenterol 22:231–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia, Milano 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Pennazio
  • F. P. Rossini

There are no affiliations available

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