LH-RH Agonists in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

  • D. Gonzalez-Barcena
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 124)


The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas is steadily increasing. Approximately 25000 new cases of pancreatic cancer are diagnosed yearly in the United States where this tumor now ranks as the fourth leading cause of death from malignancies (Connolly et al. 1987; Greenberger et al. 1987). The vast majority of pancreatic cancers are ductal adenocarcinomas, but other pancreatic carcinomas also occur. Histogenetically, more than 90% of these tumors are derived from the pancreatic ducts and thus about 60% are located in the head of the gland (Moossa et al. 1986). Ductal adenocarcinoma has a very poor prognosis, in part because most patients have advanced disease by the time of diagnosis. Early diagnosis and screening for nonendocrine pancreatic cancer is difficult, although the technology for detecting these small tumors is available (Blind and Dahlgren 1987; Douglass 1987; Anonymous 1986; Malt 1983).


Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Carcinoma Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Exocrine Pancreas Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anonymous (1986) Early diagnosis and screening for pancreatic cancer (editorial). Lancet ii:785–786Google Scholar
  2. Bauer W, Briner W, Doepfner W, Haller R, Huguenin R, Marbach P, Petcher TJ, Pless J (1982) SMS-201-995: a very potent and selective octapeptide analogue of somatostatin with prolongued action. Life Sci 31:1133–1140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benz C, Hollander C, Miller B (1986) Endocrine-responsive pancreatic carcinoma: steroid binding and cytotoxicity studies in human tumor cell lines. Cancer Res 46:2276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blind PJ, Dahlgren ST (1987) Serum levels of the carbohydrate antigen CA-50 in pancreatic disease. Acta Chir Scand 153:45–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cai RZ, Szoke B, Lu R, Fu D, Redding TW, Schally AV (1986) Synthesis and biological activity of highly potent octapeptide analogs of somatostatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:1896–1900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cai RZ, Karashima T, Guoth J, Szoke B, Olsen D, Schally AV (1987) Superactive octapeptide somatostatin analogs containing tryptophan residue in position 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:2502–2506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chester JF, Gaissert HA, Ross JS, Malt RA (1986) Pancreatic cancer in the Syrian hamster induced by N-Nitrobis(2-oxopropyl)amine: cocarcinogenic effect of epidermal growth factor. Cancer Res 46:2954–2957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Comaru-Schally AM, Schally AV (1988) LH-RH agonists as adjuncts to somatostatin analogs in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. In: Lunenfeld B, Vickery B (eds) International symposium on Gn-RH analogues in cancer and human reproduction. MTP Press, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  9. Connolly MM, Dawson PJ, Michelassi F, Moossa AR, Lowenstein F (1987) Survival in 1001 patients with carcinoma of the pancreas. Ann Surg 206:386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Corbishley TP, Iqbal MJ, Wilkinson ML, Williams R (1986) Androgen receptor in human normal and malignant pancreatic tissue and cell lines. Cancer 57:1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dembinski AB, Johnson LR (1980) Stimulation of pancreatic growth by secretin cerulein and pentagastrin. Endocrinology 106:323–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Douglass HO Jr (1987) Pancreatic cancer: nihilism is obsolete Pancreas 2:230–232Google Scholar
  13. Fekete M, Zalatnai A, Comaru-Schally AM (1989) Membrane receptors for peptides in experimental and human pancreatic cancers. Pancreas 4:521–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gonzalez-Barcena D, Rangel-Garcia NE, Perez-Sanchez PL, Gutierrez-Samperio C, Garcia-Carrasco F, Comaru-Schally AM, Schally AV (1986) Response to D-Trp6-LH-RH in advanced adenocarcinoma of pancreas. Lancet ii: 154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gonzalez-Barcena D, Ibarra-Olmos MA, Garcia-Carrasco F, Gutierrez-Samperio C, Comaru-Schally AM, Schally AV (1989) Influence of D-Trp6-LH-RH on the survival time in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Biomed Pharmacother 43:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goustin AS, Leof EB, SMpley GD, Moses HL (1986) Growth factors and cancer. Cancer Res 46:1015–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Greenberger JJ, Toskes PP, Isselbacher KJ (1987) Diseases of the pancreas. In: Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Petersdorf RG, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Fauci AS (eds) Harrison’s principles of internal medicine, 11th edn. MacGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1372–1383Google Scholar
  18. Greenway B, Duke D, Pym B, Iqbal MJ, Johnson PJ, Williams R (1982) The control of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice by hormone therapy. Br J Surg 69:595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hierowski MT, Liebow C, Du Spain K, Schally AV (1985) Stimulation by somatostatin of dephosphorylation of membrane proteins in pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa-2 cell line. FEBS Lett 179:252–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson LR (1981) Effects of gastrointestinal hormones on pancreatic growth. Cancer 47:1640–1645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaiser MH, Ellenberg SS (Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group) (1985) Pancreatic cancer: adjuvant combined radiation and chemotherapy following curative resection. Arch Surg 120:899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Konturek SJ, Tasler J, Obtulowicz W, Coy DH, Schally AV (1976) Effect of growth hormone releasing inhibiting hormone on hormones stimulating exocrine pancreatic secretion. J Clin Invest 58:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Korc M, Magun BE (1985) Recycling of epidermal growth factor in a human pancreatic carcinoma cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:6172–6175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Malt RA (1983) Treatment of pancreatic cancer. JAMA 250:1433–1437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moossa AR, Dawson PJ, Franklin WA, Udekwu AO, Lavella-Jones M (1986) Tumors of the pancreas. In: Moossa AR, Robson MC, Schimpff SC (eds) Comprehensive textbook of oncology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 1105–1132Google Scholar
  26. Paz-Bouza JI, Redding TW, Schally AV (1987) Treatment of nitrosamine-induced pancreatic tumors in hamsters with analogs of somatostatin and luteinising hormone-releasing hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:1112–1116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pollard MH, Anderson WAD, Brooks FP, Cohn I Jr, Copeland MM, Connelly RR, Fortner JG, Kissane JM, Lemon HM, Palmer PES, Thomas LB, Webster PD, Carter S (1981) Staging of cancer of pancreas. Cancer of the pancreas task force. Cancer 47:1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pousette A, Carlstrom K, Skoldefors H, Wilding N, Theve NO (1982) Purification of partial characterization of 178-estradiol binding macromolecules in the human pancreas. Cancer Res 42:633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Redding TW, Schally AV (1984) Inhibition of growth of pancreatic carcinoma in animal models by analogs of hypothalamic hormones. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schally AV, Redding TW (1987) Somatostatin analogues as adjuncts to agonists of luteiniz-ing hormone-releasing hormone in the treatment of experimental prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:7275–7279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schally AV, Comaru-Schally AM, Redding TW (1984) Antitumor effects of analogs of hypothalamic hormones in endocrine-dependent cancers. Proc Soc Ex Biol Med 175:259–281Google Scholar
  32. Setyono-Han B, Henkelman MS, Foekens JA, Klijn JGM (1987) Direct inhibitory effects of somatostatin (analogues) on the growth of human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 47:1566–1570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Skibber JM, Weiss SM, Mohiuddin M, Rosate FE (1985) Impact of radiotherapy on palliative gastroenterostomy in pancreatic cancer. Ann Surg 202:725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Szende B, Srkalovic G, Schally AV, Lapis K, Groot K (1990) Inhibitory effects of analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin on pancreatic cancers in hamsters. Cancer 65:2279–2290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Theve NO, Pousette A, Carlström K (1983) Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas — a hormone-sensitive tumor? A preliminary report on novaldex treatment. Clin Oncol 9:193–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Zalatnai A, Schally AV (1989) Responsiveness of the hamster pancreatic cancer to treatment with microcapsules of D-Trp6-LH-RH and somatostatin analog RC-160: histological evidence of improvement. Int J Pancreatol 4:149–160PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Gonzalez-Barcena
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento Clinico de EndocrinologiaHospital de Especialidades Centro Médico La Raza, Institute Mexicano del Seguro Social, Sens y Zaachila, Col. La RazaMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations