The Pituitary-Thyroid-Gonadal Axis in Saudi β-Thalassaemia Patients

  • M. A. F. El-Hazmi
  • A. S. Warsy
  • I. Al-Fawaz


Beta-thalassaemia major (β-thal. major) patients frequently suffer from endocrine dysfunction, a consequence of the transfusion-related iron overload [1–4]. Deposition of iron in different tissues including the pituitary gland, the thyroid and the gonads has been well documented histologically [2, 5]. The reported endocrine abnormalities include hypoparathyroidism, deficiency of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and thyroid hormone, and impaired function of islet cells of the pancreas [1–4, 6]. Though several studies point to these abnormalities, others present contradictory results and show no variation in some endocrine levels [7]. These discrepancies have been related to ethnic variations and to differences in management strategies. This study was initiated to investigate the pituitary-thyroid-gonadal axis in Saudi β-thalassaemia patients.


Luteinizing Hormone Ferritin Level Chelation Therapy Thalassaemia Patient Thalassaemia Major 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. F. El-Hazmi
  • A. S. Warsy
  • I. Al-Fawaz

There are no affiliations available

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