Age, Growth and Maximum Size of Antarctic Notothenioid Fish — Revisited

  • Karl-Hermann Kock
  • Inigo Everson


The temperature of the Southern Ocean has undergone an overall reduction from about 20 °C to −1.8 °C over the last 55–60 million years. To date, the Southern Ocean is characterized by low temperatures ranging from +3 °C close to the South Polar Frontal Zone to −1.86 °C in the vicinity of the Antarctic continent and a strong seasonality and patchiness of primary productivity.


Growth Performance Antarctic Fish Antarctic Continent Antarctic Species Pleuragramma Antarcticum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kock K-H (1992) Antarctic fish and fisheries. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eastman J T (1993) Antarctic fish biology. Evolution in a unique environment. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eastman J T (1995) The evolution of Antarctic fishes: questions for consideration and avenues for research. Cybium 19(4):371–389Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andriashev, A P (1987) A general review of the Antarctic bottom fish fauna. In: Kullander, S O, Fernholm B (eds), Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of European Ichthyologists, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, pp 357–372Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clarke A, Johnston, IA (1996) Evolution and adaptive radiation of Antarctic fishes. Trends Ecol Evol 11(5):212–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Clarke A, North A W (1991) Is the growth of polar fish limited by temperature? In: di Prisco, G, Maresca B, Tota B (eds), Biology of Antarctic fish, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 54–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Everson I (1984) Fish biology. In: Laws, R M (ed), Antarctic ecology, Vol. 2, Academic Press, London, pp 491–532Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Radtke R L, Kellermann, A (1991) Microstructural analysis of growth patterns in early life history stages of Antarctic fishes. In: di Prisco, G, Maresca B, Tota B (eds), Biology of Antarctic fish, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 101–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ashford J R, White M G (1995) An annual profile of growth in the otoliths of immature Notothenia coriiceps Richardson in relation to the environment at Signy Island, Antarctica. Antarct Sci 7(4):345–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Olsen S (1954) South Georgia cod, Notothenia rossi mannorata Fischer. Norsk Hvalfangst 43(7):373–382Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wohlschlag D E (1962) Antarctic fish growth and metabolic differences related to sex. Ecology 43:589–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Everson I (1970) The population dynamics and energy budget of Notothenia neglecta Nybelin at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands. Brit Antarct Surv Bull 23:25–50Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hureau J-C (1970) Biologie comparée de quelques poissons antarctiques (Nototheniidae). Bull Inst Océanogr Monaco 68(1391): 1–244Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Radtke R L, Hourigan, T F (1990) Age and growth of the Antarctic fish Nototheniops nudifrons. Fish Bull 88:557–571Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    White M G (1991) Age determination in Antarctic fish. In: di Prisco, G, Maresca B, Tota B (eds), Biology of Antarctic fish, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Radtke R L (1987) Information incorporated in Antarctic fish otoliths. In: Kullander, S O, Fernholm B (eds), Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of European Ichthyologists, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, pp 421–425Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kock K-H (1980) Graphical analysis of length frequency distributions of Champsocephalus gunnari Lonnberg (Channichthyidae) from South Georgia. Cybium 1980 (8):33–42Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Duhamel G (1987) Ichthyofaune des secteur indien occidental et atlantique oriental de l’océan austral: biogeographie, cycles biologiques et dynamique des populations. Thèse de Doctorat D’Etat. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, 1–687Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barrera-Oro E R, Casaux R J (1996) Validation of age determination in Notothenia coriiceps, by means of a tagging experiment at Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands. Arch Fish Mar Res 43(3):205–216Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kawaguchi K, Ishikawa S, Matsuda O, Naito Y (1989) Tagging experiment of nototheniid fish, Trematomus bernacchii Boulenger under the coastal fast ice in Liitzow-Holm Bay, Antarctica. Proc NIPR Symp Polar Biol 2:111–116Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Anonymous (1980) Working Party on Antarctic Fish Biology. Report of the Second Meeting, Dammarie-les-Lys, France 27–31 May 1980. BIOMASS Report Series 12, 47 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Anonymous (1982) Working Party on Antarctic Fish Biology. Report of the Second Workshop on the Ageing of Antarctic Fishes, Orono, Maine, USA, 7–10 June 1982. BIOMASS Report Series 26, 7 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Everson I (1980) Antarctic fish age determination methods. BIOMASS Handbook 8, 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    North A W, White M G, Burchett, M S (1980) Age determination of Antarctic fish. Cybium 8:7–11Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kock K-H (1990) Results of the CCAMLR fish otoliths/scales/bones exchange system. SC-CAMLR Select Scient Pap 1989:51–68Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Radtke R L, Hubold G, Folsom S D, Lenz P H (1993) Otolith structure and chemical analysis: the key to resolving age and growth of the Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarcticum. Antarct Sci 5:51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vacchi M, Romanelli M, La Mesa M (1992) Age structure of Chionodraco hamatus (Teleostei, Channichthyidae) samples caught in Terra Nova Bay, East Antarctica. Polar Biol 12(8):735–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bertalanffy L v (1951) Theoretische Biologic Vol. 2: Stoffwechsel, Wachstum. A. Francke Verlag, BernGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pauly D (1979) Gill size and temperature as governing factors in fish growth: a generalization of von Bertalanffy’s growth formula. Ber Inst Meeresk Kiel 63:1–156Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chekunova V I, Naumov A G (1982) Energy metabolism and food requirements of the marbled notothenia, Notothenia rossi marmorata (Nototheniidae). Vopr Ikthiol 22(2): 294–302 (in Russian) (Published in English as J Ichthyol 22(2): 112–121Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chekunova V I, Naumov A G (1982) Energy metabolism of Notothenia gibberifrons Lönnberg off South Georgia. In: Characteristics of the pelagic community from the Scotia Sea and adjacent waters, All-Union Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Moscow, pp 76–85Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Burchett M S (1983) Age and growth of the Antarctic fish Notothenia rossii from South Georgia. Br Antarct Surv Bull 60:45–61Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hubold G, Hagen W (1997) Seasonality of feeding and lipid content in juvenile Pleuragramma antarcticum (Pisces: Nototheniidae) in the southern Weddell Sea. In: Battaglia B, Valencia J, Walton, D W H (eds), Antarctic communities — species, structure and survival, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 277–283Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Linkowski T B, Presler P, Zukowski C (1983) Food habits of nototheniid fishes (Nototheniidae) in Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). Pol Polar Res 4(l–4):79–95Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Targett T E, Young K E, Konecki J T, Grecay P A (1987) Research on wintertime feeding in Antarctic fishes. Antarct J U S 22(1/2):211–213Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hubold G (1992) Zur Ökologie der Fische im Weddellmeer. Ber Polarforsch 103:1–157 (in German)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Clarke A (1988) Seasonality in the Antarctic environment. In: di Prisco, G, Maresca B, Tota B (eds), Marine biology of Antarctic organisms, Proceedings of the International Conference, Ravello, Italy, Comp Biochem Physiol 90B:461–473Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zimmermann C (1997) Zur Ökologie arktischer und antarktischer Fische: Aktivität, Sinnesleistungen und Verhalten. Ber Polarforsch 231:1–137 (in German)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl-Hermann Kock
    • 1
  • Inigo Everson
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für SeefischereiBFA für FischereiHamburgGermany
  2. 2.British Antarctic SurveyHigh CrossCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations