β-Blockers for Heart Failure: Practical Issues

  • J. G. F. Cleland
Conference paper


Carvedilol, and possibly other β-blockers, are rapidly becoming established as part of the routine treatment for chronic heart failure [1,2]. In clinical trials chronic β-blocker therapy slows progression of left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure symptoms, postpones the need for transplantation, reduces the frequency of hospitalisations and reduces the risk of death. In these trials, β-blockers have been well tolerated, with withdrawal rates similar to that observed in trials of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.


Heart Failure Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Chronic Heart Failure Blocker Therapy Serum Digoxin Level 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 1998

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  • J. G. F. Cleland

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