Dementias pp 223-231 | Cite as

Non-Cognitive Symptoms and Alterations in Demented Patients

  • W. C. McCormick


Promising new medical therapies for Alzheimer’s disease are being tested [1] that may be useful in preventing or delaying the cognitive impairment characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. So far these agents have been used in persons already at a fairly advanced stage of illness. To effectively prevent symptoms from progressing to advanced stages, therapies will probably need to be applied as early as possible, when symptoms are barely detectable [2]. Yet, Alzheimer’s disease can be difficult to diagnose with certainty ante mortem, especially early in the course of the illness [3], and it is sometimes not recognized in elderly individuals even when advanced [4]. The disease usually manifests initially with very subtle symptoms that increase insidiously over several years [5]. Diagnostic tests (chemical markers [6] or brain imaging [7]) may some day allow definitive diagnosis, perhaps even prior to the onset of symptoms. Currently, however, codified clinical diagnostic criteria such as those developed by the NINCDS-ADRDA [8] or those in the DSM-IIIR [9] are the research standards for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease ante mortem. These criteria are based on typical symptoms of the illness and have good reliability [10] and validity [11] when judged against post mortem pathological diagnoses.


Demented Patient Memory Complaint Elderly Outpatient Dementing Illness Demented Group 


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© Springer-Verlag Italia 1999

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  • W. C. McCormick

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