Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy and Bronchoalveolar Lavage in the Management of Children with Gastroesophageal Reflux

  • O. Sacco
  • B. Fregonese
  • M. Silvestri
  • G. A. Rossi


Patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) often show diffuse or localized esophagitis, characterized by esophageal mucosal damage resulting from reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. This complication of GER is well characterized and is extensively described in all textbooks of internal medicine and pediatrics, whose authors postulate that reflux in the absence of esophagitis is usually asymptomatic [1–4]. In contrast, it is well accepted that gastric contents may reach the pharynx and mouth only during severe reflux episodes, resulting in laryngitis, morning hoarseness and recurrent pulmonary aspiration and leading to pulmonary infiltrates or chronic asthma [5–7], The incidence of GER is high in pediatric patients and is mainly related to low esophageal sphincter (LES) tone [8]. In adults, GER incidence decreases and appears to be more frequently related to anatomical malposition of the viscera, as observed in the herniation of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus.


Gastroesophageal Reflux Respiratory Symptom Bronchoalveolar Lavage Gastric Content Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Sacco
    • 1
  • B. Fregonese
    • 1
  • M. Silvestri
    • 1
  • G. A. Rossi
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of PneumologyG. Gaslini InstituteGenoaItaly

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