Inflammation and Multiple Sclerosis: a Close Interplay

  • G. Martino
  • R. Furlan
  • P. L. Poliani
Part of the Topics in Neuroscience book series (TOPNEURO)


In the first century A.D., Cornelius Celsus first described the inflammatory process by indicating its five cardinal signs: rubor, tumor, color, dolor and functio laesa. The intrinsic characteristics of the inflammatory process were subsequently described in 1793 by John Hunter who stated that the inflammatory reaction is not a disease but a specific response that has a “salutary” effect on its host. The pathological aspects of the inflammatory process were first described in the nineteenth century by Julius Cohnheim who claimed that in the inflammed tissue there is an initial vasodilatation associated with increased vascular permeability and changes in the blood flow causing edema and leukocyte extravasation. At the end of the nineteenth century, Elia Metchnikoff suggested that the purpose of the inflammatory process is to bring phagocytic cells to the injured areas to engulf invading bacteria. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Paul Enrich indicated that inflammation involves not only cellular (phagocytosis) but also serum factors (antibodies), and Sir Thomas Lewis concluded that the vascular changes occurring during the inflammatory process are mainly mediated by chemical substances (reviewed in [1]).


Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis Patient Myelin Basic Protein Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis Phorbol Myristate Acetate 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Martino
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. Furlan
    • 1
  • P. L. Poliani
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Experimental Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of NeuroscienceSan Raffaele Scientific InstituteMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific InstituteUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

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