Advertisement

Imaging of the Urogenital Tract: Concepts, Challenges and Controversies

  • U. V. Willi
Conference paper
Part of the Syllabus book series (SYLLABUS)

Abstract

Since the establishment of prenatal screening by ultrasonography (US), a majority of abnormalities arising from the kidneys and urinary tract are discovered “prospectively” and referred for workup usually prior to the occurrence of any other clinical manifestation or complication. Yet, infection of the urinary tract, abdominal mass, pain, bleeding (hematuria) and other symptoms remain important clinical manifestations related to various abnormalities of the urinary tract as well as to the urogenital system as a more complex entity.

Keywords

Urinary Tract Obstructive Uropathy Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction Urinary Tract Abnormality Cystic Nephroma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Suggested Reading

Post-natal Evaluation

  1. Arnold AJ, Rickwood AMK (1990) Natural history of pelviureteric obstruction detected by prenatal sonography. Br J Urol 65:91–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Avni EF, Rypens F, Schulman CC (1993) In utero sonographic diagnosis of urinary tract dilatation. Appl Radiol May: 31–37Google Scholar
  3. Dacher JN, Mandell J, Lebowitz RL (1992) Urinary tract infection in infants in spite of prenatal diagnosis of hydronephrosis. Pediatr Radiol 22:401–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dinnen MD, Dhillon HK, Ward HC, et al. (1993) Antenatal diagnosis of posterior urethral valves. Br J Urol 72:364–369Google Scholar
  5. Grant HW, MacKinlay GA, Chambers SE, et al. (1993) Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis: A review of fetal outcome. Pediatr Surg Int 8:469–471Google Scholar
  6. Mandell J, Lebowitz RL, Peters CA, et al. (1992) Prenatal diagnosis of the megacvstis-megaureter association. J Urol 148: 1487–1489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ransley PG, Dhillon HK, Gordon I, et al. (1990) The postnatal management of hydronephrosis diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. J Urol 144:584–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Rickwood AMK, Dee LD, Williams MPL, Anderson PAM (1992) Natural history of obstructed and pseudoobstructed megaureters detected by prenatal sonography. Br J Urol 70: 322–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Winters WD, Lebowitz RL (1990) Importance of prenatal detection of hydronephrosis of the upper pole. AJR Am J Roentgenol 155:125–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Zerin MJ, Ritchey ML, Chang ACH (1993) Incidental vesicoureteral reflux in neonates with antenatally detected hydronephrosis and other renal abnormalities. Radiology 187: 157–160PubMedGoogle Scholar

Ultrasonography

  1. Avni EF, Dacher JN, Stallenberg B, et al. (1991) Renal duplications: The impact of perinatal ultrasound on diagnosis and management. Eur Urol 90:43–48Google Scholar
  2. Blane CE, Barr M, DiPietro MA, et al. (1991) Ultrasound diagnosis and therapeutic implications. Pediatr Radiol 21:274–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohen HL, Susman M, Haller JO, et al. (1994) Posterior urethral valve: transperineal US for imaging and diagnosis in male infants. Radiologv 192:261–264Google Scholar
  4. Garcia-Pena BM, Keller MS, Schwartz DS, Korsvik HE, Weiss RM (1997) The ultrasonographic differentiation of obstructive versus nonobstructive hydronephrosis in children: a multivariate scoring system. J Urol 158:560–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Keller MS, Weiss RM, Rosenfield NS (1993) Sonographic evaluation of ureterectasis in children: The significance of peristalsis. J Urol 149:553–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Scott JES, Lee REJ, Hunter EW, et al. (1991) Ultrasound screening of newborn urinary tract. Lancet 338:1571–1573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Strehlau J, Winkler P, de la Roche J (1997) The uretero-vesical jet as a functional diagnostic tool in childhood hydronephrosis. Pediatr Nephrol 11:460–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Hydroureteronephrosis and Excretion Urography

  1. Brown T, Mandell J, Lebowitz RL (1987) Neonatal hydronephrosis in the era of sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 148:959–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Docimo SG, Lebowitz RL, Retik AB (1989) Congenital midureteral obstruction. Urol Radiol 11:156–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fernbach SK (1998) Pediatric uroradiology — 1997. World J Urol 16:46–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fernbach SK (1992) The dilated urinary tract in children. Urol Radiol 14:34–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fernbach SK, Zawin JK, Lebowitz RL (1995) Complete duplication of the ureter with ureteropelvic junction obstruction of the lower pole of the kidney: imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 164:701–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gharagozloo AM, Lebowitz RL (1995) Detection of a poorly functioning malpositioned kidney with single ectopic ureter in girls with urinary dribbling: imaging evaluation in five patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 164:957–961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Groshar D, Issaq E, Nativ O, Livne PM (1996) Increased renal function in kidneys with ureteropelvic junction obstruction: fact or artifact? Assessment by quantitative single photon emission computerized tomography of dimercapto-succinic acid uptake by the kidneys. J Urol 155:844–846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hoffer FA, Lebowitz RL (1985) Intermittent hydronephrosis: a unique feature of ureteropelvic junction obstruction caused by a crossing renal vessel. Radiology 156:655–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Homsy YL, Saad F, Laberge I, et al. (1990) Transitional hydronephrosis of the newborn and infant. J Urol 144:579–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Lebowitz RL (1994) Excretory urography in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 163:990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lee BR, Partin AW, Epstein JI, et al. (1992) A quantitative histological analysis of the dilated ureter of childhood. J Urol 148:1482–1486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Maizels M, Reisman ME, Flom LS, et al. (1992) Grading nephroureteral dilatation detected in the first year of life: Correlation with obstruction. J Urol 148:609–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Meyer JS, Lebowitz RL (1992) Primary megaureter in infants and children: a review. Urol Radiol 14:296–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. O’Reilly P, Aurell M, Britton K, Kletter K, Rosenthal L, Testa T (1996) Consensus on diuresis renography for investigating the dilated upper urinary tract. Radionuclides in Nephrology Group. Consensus committee on diuresis renography. J Nucl Med 37:1872–1876Google Scholar
  15. Paltiel HJ, Lebowitz RL (1989) Neonatal hydronephrosis due to primary vesicoureteral reflux: Trends in diagnosis and treatment. Radiology 170:787–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Peters CA (1995) Urinary tract obstruction in children. J Urol 154:1874–1883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rickwood AM, Godiwalla SY (1997) The natural history of pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction in children presenting clinically with the complaint. Brit J Urol 80:793–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Nephroblastome and Neuroblastoma

  1. Beckwith JB (1986) Wilms tumor and other renal tumors of childhood: an update. J Urol 136:320–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brodeur GM, Pritchard J, Berthold F, et al. (1993) Revisions of the international criteria for neuroblastoma diagnosis, staging and response to treatment. J Clin Oncol 11:1466–1477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Breslow N, Olshan A, Beckwith JB, et al. (1993) Epidemiology of Wilms tumor. Med Pediatr Oncol 21:172–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crist WM, Kun LE (1991) Common solid tumors in childhood. N Engl J Med 324:461–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Evans AE, D’Angio GJ, Randolph J (1971) A proposed staging for children with neuroblastoma. Children’s Cancer Study Group A. Cancer 27:374–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fernbach SK, Feinstein KA, Donaldson JS, et al. (1988) Nephroblastomatosis: comparison of CT with US and urography. Radiology 166:153–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Forman HP, Leonidas JC, Berdon WE, et al. (1990) Congenital neuroblastoma: evaluation with multimodality imaging. Radiology 175:365–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kirks DR, Kaufman RA, Babcock DS (1987) Renal neoplasms in infants and children. Semin Roentgenol 22:292–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kronreich L, Horev G, Kaplinsky C, et al. (1991) Neuroblastoma: evaluation with contrast enhanced MR imaging. Pediatr Radiol 21:566–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Parisi MT, Greene MK, Dykes TM, et al. (1992) Efficacy of metaiodobenzyl-guanidine as a scintigraphic agent for the detection of neuroblastoma. Invest Radiol 27:768–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Shulkin BL, Shapiro B, Hutchinson RJ (1992) Iodine-131-metaiodobenzyl-guanidine and bone scintigraphy for the detection of neuroblastoma. J Nucl Med 33:1735–1740PubMedGoogle Scholar

Further Suggested Reading

  1. Kirks DR, Griscom NT (1998) Practical pediatric imaging, 3rd edn. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Siegel MJ (1995) Pediatric sonography, 2nd edn. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Teele RL, Share JC (1991) Ultrasonography in infants and children. WB Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  4. Treves %ST (1995) Pediatric nuclear medicine, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. V. Willi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity Children HospitalZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations