Advertisement

Expanding ICD Indications: Can We Afford It?

  • M. Santini
  • M. Russo
  • R. Ricci
  • C. Pignalberi
  • B. Magris
  • L. Santini
Conference paper

Abstract

Sudden cardiac death is a great health problem in Western countries, accounting for about 300 000/500 000 events per year in the United States and Europe. It is one of the most important causes of death in the adult population in the developed countries. Since coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of sudden death, its epidemiology follows the incidence and prevalence of known risk factors for coronary artery disease.

Keywords

Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Sudden Death Sudden Cardiac Death Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy Implantable Defibrillator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Santini M (2003) In: Santini M (ed) Nonpharmacological treatment of sudden death. Chapter l. Arianna, BolognaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Becker LB, Smith DW, Rhodes KV(1993) Incidence of cardiac arrest: a neglected factor in evaluating survival rates. Ann Emerg Med 22:86–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Vreede-Swagemakers JJ, Gorgles AP, Dubois-Arbouw WI et al (1997) Out-OF-hospital cardiac arrest in the 1990’s: a population-based study in the Maastricht area on incidence, characteristics and survival. J Am Coll Cardiol 30:1500–1505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A (2001) Cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death. In: Braunwald E, Zipes DP, Libby P (eds) Heart disease: a textbook of cardiovascular medicine. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Priori SG, Aliot E, Blomstrom-Lundqvist C et al (2003) European Society of Cardiology. Update of the guidelines on sudden cardiac death of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 24:13–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Echt DS, Liebson PR, Mitchell LL et al (1991) Mortality and morbidity in patients receiving encainide, flecainide or placebo. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. N Engl J Med 324:781–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Waldo AL, Camm AJ, de Ruyter H et al (1996) Effect of d-sotalol on mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after recent and remote myocardial infarction. The SWORD Investigators. Survival With Oral d-Sotalol. Lancet 348:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cairns JA, Connolly SJ, Roberts R, Gent M, for the CAMIAT Investigators (1997) Randomized trial of outcome after myocardial infarction in patients with frequent or repetitive ventricular premature depolarisations: CAMIAT. Lancet 349:675–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Julian DG, Camm AJ, Frangin G et al, for the EMIAT Investigators (1997) Randomized trial of effect of amiodarone on mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after recent myocardial infarction: EMIAT. Lancet 349:667–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sim I, McDonald KM, Lavori PW et al (1997) Quantitative overview of randomized trials of amiodarone to prevent sudden cardiac death. Circulation 96:2823–2829PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mason JW for the Electrophysiologic Study versus Electrocardiographic Monitoring Investigators (1993) A comparison of electrophysiologic testing with Holter monitoring to predict antiarrhythmic-drug efficacy for ventricular tachyarrhythmias. N Engl JMed 329:445–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    The AVID investigators (1997) A comparison of antiarrhythmic drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated from near fatal ventricular arrhythmias. N Engl J Med 337:1576–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kuck KH, Cappato R, Siebeis J, Rüppel R (2000) Randomized comparison of antiarrhythmic drug therapy with implantable defibrillators in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest. The Cardiac Arrest Study Hamburg (CASH). Circulation 102:748–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Connolly SJ, Gent M, Roberts RS et al (2000) A randomized trial of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator against amiodarone. Canadian Implantable Defibrillator Study (CIDS). Circulation 101:1297–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Epstein AE, Powell J, Yao Q et al (1999) In-hospital versus out-of-hospital presentation of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias predicts survival: results from the AVID registry. Antiarrhythmics versus Implantable Defibrillators. J Am Coll Cardiol 34:1111–1116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anderson JL, Hallström AP, Epstein AE et al (1999) Design and results of the Antiarrhythmics versus Implantable Defibrillators (AVID) registry. Circulation 99:1692–1699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    The CASCADE Investigators (1993) Randomized antiarrhythmic drug therapy in survivors of cardiac arrest (the CASCADE study). Am J Cardiol 72:280–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Greene HL (1993) The CASCADE Study: randomized antiarrhythmic drug therapy in survivors of cardiac arrest in Seattle. CASCADE Investigators. Am J Cardiol 72:70F–74F.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moss AJ, Hall WJ, Cannom DS et al, for the MADIT Investigators (1996) Improved survival with an implanted defibrillator in patients with coronary disease at high risk for ventricular arrhythmia. N Engl J Med 335:1933–1940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buxton AE, Lee KL, Fisher JD et al, for MUSTT Investigators (1999) A randomized study of the prevention of sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl JMed 341:1882–1890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gregoratos G, Abrams J, Epstein AE, Freedman RA, Hayes DL, Hlatky MA, Kerber RE, Naccarelli GV, Schoenfeld MH, Silka MJ, Winters SL (2002) ACC/AHA/NASPE 2002 guidelines update for implantation of cardiac pace-makers and antiarrhythmia devices. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/NASPE Committee to Update the 1998 Guidelines). J Am Coll Cardiol 40:1703–1920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Buxton AE, Lee KL, DiCarlo L et al, for MUSTT Investigators (2000) Electrophysiologic testing to identify patients with coronary artery disease who are at risk for sudden death. N Engl J Med 342:1937–1945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moss AJ, Zareba W, Hall WJ et al, for MADIT II Investigators (2002) Prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator in patients with myocardial infarction and reduced ejection fraction. N Engl J Med 346:877–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Larsen G, Hallström A, McAnulty J et al, for the AVID Investigators (2002) Cost-effectiveness of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator versus antiarrhythmic drugs in survivors of serious ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Results of AVID economic analysis substudy. Circulation 105:2049–2057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mushlin AI, Hall J, Zwanzinger J et al, for the MADIT Investigators (1998) The cost-effectiveness of automatic implantable cardiac defibrillators: results from MADIT. Circulation 97:2129–2135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    No Authors (1994) Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian sinvastatin survival study. Lancet 344:1383–1389Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zipes DP (2001) Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: a Volkswagen or a Rolls Royce. How much will we pay to save a life? Circulation 103:1372–1374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Santini
    • 1
  • M. Russo
    • 1
  • R. Ricci
    • 1
  • C. Pignalberi
    • 1
  • B. Magris
    • 1
  • L. Santini
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardiovascular DepartmentSan Filippo Neri HospitalRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations