Total Intravenous Anesthesia and Respiratory System

  • A. Pasetto
  • L. Rinaldi


General anesthesia interferes with gas exchange even in patients with healthy lungs. This process is associated with alterations in the structure of chest-wall components such as the diaphragm. Almost 30 years have passed since Froese and Bryan [1] provided the first direct measurements of how anesthesia affects the shape and motion of the normal human diaphragm (Fig. 1). They described how the silhouette of the diaphragm created by fluoroscopy moved during breathing before and after the induction of anesthesia. Based on the interpretation of their results and subsequent studies by others [2], the following scenario evolved (and has been adopted by many anesthesia texts) (Fig. 2).


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Functional Residual Capacity Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia Total Intravenous Anesthesia Ketamine Anesthesia 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2004

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  • A. Pasetto
  • L. Rinaldi

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