Advertisement

Brain Degeneration and Aging

  • M. A. van Buchem

Abstract

Many diseases result in degeneration of the nervous system. To name a few: infection, multiple sclerosis, and tumors destroy neuronal tissue. However, the term neurodegenerative disorders refers to a group of diseases that share the characteristic of death of subsets of specific classes of neurons. Another common feature of the class of neurodegenerative disorders is the fact that they are idiopathic, the etiology of these diseases is not completely understood. With increasing knowledge of the pathogenesis of these diseases, disorders that are presently classified as neurodegenerative will be grouped among diseases with a known pathogenesis, and consequently, the list of degenerative disorders will decrease. This paper discusses the neuroradiological aspects of a number of disorders that are presently considered to be neurodegenerative.

Keywords

White Matter Normal Aging White Matter Hyperintensities Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Sylvian Fissure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Suggested Reading

  1. Aoki S, Okada Y, Nishimura K et al (1989) Normal deposition of brain iron in childhood and adolescence: MR imaging at 1.5 T. Radiology 172:381–385Google Scholar
  2. Bryan RN, Wells SW, Miller TJ et al (1997) Infarctlike lesions in the brain: prevalence and anatomic characteristics at MR imaging of the elderly — data from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Radiology 202:47–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Caplan LR (1995) Binswanger’s disease — revisited. Neurology 45:626–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Drayer BP (1988) Imaging of the aging brain. Part I. Normal findings. Radiology 166:785–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Drayer BP (1988) Imaging of the aging brain. Part IL Pathologic conditions. Radiology 166:797–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Esiri MM, Hyman BT, Beyreuther K, Masters CL (1997) Ageing and dementia. In: Graham DI, Lantos PL (eds) Greenfield’s neuropathology, vol. 2. Arnold, London, pp 153–233Google Scholar
  7. Grossman RI, Yousem DM (2003) Neuroradiology — the requisites, 2nd edn. Mosby, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  8. Guttmann CRG, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R et al (1998) White matter changes with normal aging. Neurology 50:972–978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jack CR, Lexa FJ, Trojanowski JQ, Braffman BH, Atlas SW (2003) Normal aging, dementia, and neurodegenerative disease. In: Atlas SW (ed) Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine, 3rd edn. Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1177–1240Google Scholar
  10. Lechner H, Schmidt R, Fazekas F et al (1994) White matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in a healthy elderly population: correlations to vascular risk factors and carotid atherosclerosis. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 4:224–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Milton WJ, Atlas SW, Lexa FJ, Mozley PD, Gur RE (1991) Deep gray matter hypointensity patterns with aging in healthy adults: MR imaging at 1.5 T. Radiology 181:715–719Google Scholar
  12. Nagata K, Basugi N, Fukushima T et al (1987) A quantitative study of physiological cerebral atrophy with aging: a statistical analysis of the normal range. Neuroradiology 29:327–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pantoni L, Garcia JH (1995) The significance of cerebral white matter abnormalities 100 years after Binswanger’s report — a review. Stroke 26:1293–1301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Roman GC (1996) From UBOs to Binswanger’s disease — impact of MRI on vascular dementia research. Stroke 27:1269–1273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Roman GC, Tatemichi TK, Erkinjuntti T et al (1993) Vascular dementia: diagnostic criteria for research studies. Report of the NINDS-AIREN International Workshop. Neurology 43:250–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rowe JW, Kahn RL (1987) Human aging: usual and successful. Science 237:143–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Valk J, Barkhof F, Scheltens P (2002) Magnetic resonance in dementia. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Ylikoski A, Erkinjuntti T, Raininko R, Sarna S, Sulkava R, Tilvis R (1995) White matter hyperintensities on MRI in the neurologically nondiseased elderly — analysis of cohorts of consecutive subjects aged 55 to 85 years living at home. Stroke 26:1171–1177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. van Buchem
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations