Paranasal Sinuses and Nose: Normal Anatomy and Pathologic Processes

  • L. A. Loevner


The development of the paranasal sinuses has been well described [1]. The maxillary sinuses are the first of the paranasal sinuses to develop; development begins in the first trimester of gestation and usually is completed by. adolescence. The ethmoid air cells arise from numerous evaginations from the nasal cavity, beginning with the anterior air cells, and progressing to the posterior air cells. The ethmoid air cells begin to develop between the end of the first trimester and the mid-second trimester of gestation, and reach final adult proportions during puberty. The sphenoid sinus is present by the second trimester, and is fully developed in early adolescence. The frontal sinuses are the only sinuses consistently absent at birth. Their development is variable: it begins during the first few years of life and completes in adolescence.


Nasal Cavity Paranasal Sinus Cavernous Sinus Maxillary Sinus Sphenoid Sinus 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. Loevner
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuroradiology Division, Department of RadiologyUniversity of Pennsylvania Medical CenterPhiladelphiaUSA

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