Advertisement

Surgical treatment options for rectal cancer

  • G. A. Santoro
  • G. Di Falco
  • M. Trompetto
  • C. O. Finne
  • C. Pastore
  • K. Miller
  • I. Zorcolo
  • D. C. C. Bartolo
  • T. Hull
  • T. H. A. Arulampalam
  • C. G. S. Hüscher
  • G. Melotti
  • A. D’Annibale
  • E. Morpurgo
  • J. B. Kruskal
  • J. Marescaux
  • F. Rubino

Abstract

Precise staging of rectal carcinomas is mandatory in order to improve the long-term results and to individualize therapeutic approach. Endorectal ultrasound is important in accurately staging the tumor by identifying both depth of invasion and presumptive nodal status. Conventional local excision (LE) of a properly selected group of patients with low risk rectal cancers can provide long-term survival, with minimal morbidity, negligible mortality and excellent functional results. Under a curative intention, local excision of distal rectal tumors (located 4 to 18 cm from the anal verge) can be performed by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). In the future (neo-) adjuvant therapies can further improve results of these procedures.

Keywords

Rectal Cancer Anterior Resection Total Mesorectal Excision Abdominoperineal Resection Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Rouanet P, Aubert BS, Fabre JM et al. Conservative treatment for low rectal carcinoma by local excision with or without radiotherapy. Br J Surg 1993;80:1452–1456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fortunato L, Ahmad NR, Yeung Rs et al. Long-term follow-up of local excision and radiation therapy for invasive rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1995;38:1193–1195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hojo F, Koyama Y, Moriya Y. Lymphatic spread and its prognostic value in patients with rectal cancer. Am J Surg 1982;144:350–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Banerjee AK, Jehle EC, Shorthouse AJ, Buess G. Local excision of rectal tumors. Br J Surg 1995;82:1165–1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Killingback MJ. Local excision of carcinoma of the rectum: indications. World J Surg 1992;16:437–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu SK, Church JM, Lavery IC, Fazio VW. Operation in patients with incurable colon cancer-is it worthwhile? Dis Colon Rectum 1997;40:11–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Billingham RR Conservative treatment of rectal cancer. Extending the indications. Cancer 1992;70:1355–1363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mackay SG, Pager CK, Joseph D, Stewart PJ, Solomon MJ. Assessment of the accuracy of transrectal ultrasonography in anorectal neoplasia. Br J Surg 2003;90:346–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Starck M, Bohe M, Simanaitis M, Valentin L. Rectal endosonography can distinguish benign rectal lesions from invasive early rectal cancers. Colorectal Dis 2003;5:246–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gagliardi G, Bayar S, Smith R, Salem RR. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer using magnetic resonance imaging with external phase-arrayed coils. Arch Surg 2002;137:447–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hager T, Gall FP, Hermanek P. Local excision of cancer of the rectum. Dis Colon Rectum 1983;26:149–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grigg M, Mc Dermott FT, Pihl EA, Hughes ES. Curative local excision in the treatment of carcinoma of the rectum. Dis Colon Rectum 1984;27:81–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bailey HR, Huval WV, Max E et al. Local excision of carcinoma of the rectum for cure. Surgery 1992;111:555–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nivatvongs S, Wolff BG. Technique of per anal excision for carcinoma of the low rectum. World J Surg 1992;16:447–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    De Gennaro VA, Lescher TC. Transanal excision of rectal tumors using a laparoscopic stapler. Dis Colon Rectum 1995;38:327–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Qureshi MA, Monson JR, Lee PW. Transanal Multifire Endo GIA technique for rectal polipectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 1997;40:116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kraske P. Extirpation of high carcinomas of the large bowel. Dis Colon Rectum 1984;27:499–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Huber PJ, Reiss G. Rectal tumors: treatment with a posterior approach. Am J Surg 166:760–763Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mason AY. The place of local resection in the treatment of rectal carcinoma. Proc Roy Soc Med 1970;63:1259–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Localio SA, Eng K, Coppa GF. Abdomino-sacral resection for mid-rectal cancer: a fifteen-year experience. Ann Surg 1983;198:320–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lazorthes F, Fages P, Chiotasso P et al. Resection of the rectum with construction of a colonic reservoir and colo-anal anastomosis for carcinoma of the rectum. Br J Surg 1986;76:136–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lazorthes F, Fages P, Chiotasso P et al. Synchronous abdomino-trans-sphincteric resection of low rectal cancer: new technique for direct colo-anal anastomosis. Br J Surg 1986;73:573–575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Masaki T, Sugiyama M, Atomi Y, Matsuoka H, Abe N, Watanabe T, Nagawa H, Muto T. The indication of local excision for T2 rectal carcinomas. Am J Surg 2001;181:133–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baron PL, Enker WE, Zakowski MF, Urmacher C. Immediate vs. salvage resection after local treatment for early rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1995;38:177–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hoth JJ, Waters GS, Pennell TC. Results of local excision of benign and malignant rectal lesions. Am Surg 2000;66:1099–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Koscinski T, Malinger S, Drews M. Local excision of rectal carcinoma not-exceeding the muscular layer. Colorectal Dis 2003;5:159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Visser BC, Varma MG, Welton ML. Local therapy for rectal cancer. Surg Oncol 2001;10:61–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gao JD, Shao YF, Bi JJ, Shi SS, Liang J, Hu Yh. Local excision carcinoma in early stage. World J Gastroenterol 2003;9:871–873PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mellgren A, Sirivongs P, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD, Garcia-Aguilar J. Is local excision adequate therapy for early rectal cancer? Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:1064–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sengupta S, Tjandra JJ. Local excision of rectal cancer: what is the evidence ? Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:1345–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chorost MI, Petrelli NJ, McKenna M et al. Local excision of rectal carcinoma. Am Surg 2001;67:774–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, Rout WR, Zlotecki RA, Lind DS, Hoch SN, Schell SR, Copeland EM 3rd. Local excision and postoperative radiation therapy for rectal carcinoma. Int J Cancer 2001;96:S89–S96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Minsky BD, Enker WE, Cohen AM, Lauwers G. Local excision and postoperative radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 1994;17:411–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pigot F, Dernaoui M, Castinel A, Juguet F, Chaume JC, Faivre J. Local excision with postoperative radiotherapy for T2 or T3 distal rectal cancer. Long-term results. Ann Chir 2001;126:639–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Moore HG, Guillem JG. Local therapy for rectal cancer. Surg Clin North Am 2002;82:967–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rothenberger DA, Garcia-Aguilar J. Role of local excision in the treatment of rectal cancer. Semin Surg Oncol 2000;19:367–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 1.
    Winde G, Nottberg H, Keller R, Schmid KW, Bunte H. Surgical cure for early rectal carcinomas (T1). Transanal endoscopic microsurgery vs. anterior resection. Dis Colon Rectum 1996;39:969–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 2.
    Whittle J, Steinberg EP, Anderson GF, Herbert R. Results of colectomy in elderly patients with colon cancer, based on Medicare claims data. Am J Surg 1992;163:572–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 3.
    Payne JE, Chapuis PH, Pheils MT. Surgery for large bowel cancer in people aged 75 years and older. Dis Colon Rectum 1986;29:733–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 4.
    Arnaud JP, Schloegel M, Oilier JC, Adloff M. Colorectal cancer in patients over 80 years of age. Dis Colon Rectum 1991;34:896–898PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 5.
    Finne CO. Local Treatment of Rectal Cancer. In: Edelstein PS, ed. Colon and Rectal Cancer. New York: Wiley-Liss, 2000Google Scholar
  42. 6.
    Garcia-Aguilar J, Mellgren A, Sirivongs P, Buie D, Madoff RD, Rothenberger DA. Local excision of rectal cancer without adjuvant therapy: a word of caution. Ann Surg 2000;231:345–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 7.
    Mellgren A, Sirivongs P, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD, Garcia-Aguilar J. Is local excision adequate therapy for early rectal cancer? Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:1064–1071;discussion 1071–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 8.
    Chakravarti A, Compton CC, Shellito PC, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with rectal cancer managed by local excision with and without adjuvant irradiation. Ann Surg 1999;230:49–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 9.
    Paty PB, Nash GM, Baron P, et al. Long-term results of local excision for rectal cancer. Ann Surg 2002;236:522–529; discussion 529–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 10.
    Baron PL, Enker WE, Zakowski MF, Urmacher C. Immediate vs. salvage resection after local treatment for early rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1995;38:177–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 1.
    Buess G, Theiss J, Hutterer F. Die transanale endoskopische Rektum-operation: Erprobung einer neuen Methode im Tierversuch. Leber Magen Darm 1983;13:73–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 2.
    Langer C, Markus P, Liersch T, Fuzesi L, Becker H. Ultracision or high-frequency knife in transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM)? Advantages of a new procedure. Surg Endosc 2001;15:513–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 3.
    Mortensen N, Mayer J. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: a forgotten minimally invasive operation. Br J Surg 1995;82:435–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 4.
    Sengupta S, Tjandra J. Local excision of rectal cancer: what is the evidence? Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:1345–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 5.
    Kennedy ML, Lubowski DZ, King DW. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery excision: is anorectal function compromised? Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:601–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 6.
    Saclarides TJ. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery. Surg Clin North Am 1997;77:229–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 7.
    Demartines N, von Flue MO, Harder FH. Transanal endoscopic microsurgical excision of rectal tumors: indications and results. World J Surg 2001;25:870–875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 8.
    Akasu T, Kondo H, Morioka Y, Sugihara K, Gotoda T, Fujita S, Muto T, Kakizoe T. Endorectal ultrasonography and treatment of early stage rectal cancer. World J Surg 2000;24:1061–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 9.
    Heintz A, Morschel M, Junginger T. Comparison of results after transanal endoscopic microsurgery and radical resection for T1 carcinoma of the rectum. Surg Endosc 1998;12:1145–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 10.
    Lezoche E, Guerrieri M, Paganini AM, Feliciotti E Transanal endoscopic microsurgical excision of irradiated and non irradiated rectal cancer. A 5-year experience. Surg Laparosc Endosc 1998;8:249–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 11.
    Saclarides TJ. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: a single surgeon’s experience. Arch Surg 1998;133:595–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 12.
    Buess G, Mentges B, Manncke K, Starlinger M, Becker HD. Technique and results of transanal endoscopic microsurgery in early rectal cancer. Am J Surg 1992;163:63–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 13.
    Smith LE, Ko ST, Saclarides T, Caushaj P, Orkin BA, Khanduja KS. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery. Initial registry results. Dis Colon Rectum 1996;39:S79–S84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 14.
    Steele RJ, Hershman MJ, Mortensen NJ, Armitage NC, Scholefield JH. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery. Initial experience from three centres in the United Kingdom. Initial experience from three centres in the United Kingdom. Br J Surg 1996;83:207–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 15.
    Winde G, Nottberg H, Keller R, Schmid KW, Bunte H. Surgical cure for early rectal carcinomas (T1). Transanal endoscopic microsurgery vs. anterior resection. Dis Colon Rectum 1996;39:969–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 16.
    Stipa S, Chiavellati L, Nicolanti V, Stipa F. Microscopic endoluminal tumorectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 1994;37:S81–S85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 17.
    Mahmoud N, Madoff R, Rothenberger D, Finne C. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) reduces the incidence of positive margins compared with transanal excision for rectal tumors. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:A27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 18.
    Ziprin P, Bethune R, Benoist S, Ridgway PF, Gould S, Darzi AW. The role of transanal endoscopic microsurgery in the management of malignant rectal tumors. Br J Surg 2002;89:11–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 19.
    Lezoche E, Guerrieri M, Paganini AM, Feliciotti F. Long-term results of patients with pT2 rectal cancer treated with radiotherapy and transanal endoscopic microsurgical excision. World J Surg 2002;26:1170–1174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 1.
    Banerjee AK, Jehle EC, Kreis ME, Schott UG, Claussen CD, Becker HD et al. Prospective study of the procto-graphic and functional consequences of transanal endoscopic microsurgery. Br J Surg 1996;83:211–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 2.
    Buess G, Kipfmueller K, Hack D, Gruessner R, Heintz A, Junginger T. Technique of transanal endoscopic microsurgery. Surg Endosc 1988;2:71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 3.
    Buess G. Review: transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). J R Coll Surg Edinb 1993;4:239–245Google Scholar
  69. 4.
    de Graaf EJ, Doornebosch PG, Stassen LP, Debets JM, Tetteroo GW. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2002;7:904–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 5.
    Demartines N, von Flue MO, Harder FH. Transanal endoscopic microsurgical excision of rectal tumors: indications and results. World J Surg 2001;25:870–875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 6.
    Frimberger E, Kühner W, Seib HJ, Ottenjann R. Kolorektale Adenome. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1978;103:649–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 7.
    Grigg M, McDermott FT, Phil EA, Hughes ES. Curative local excision in the treatment of carcinoma of the rectum. Dis Colon Rectum 1984;27:81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 8.
    Häring R, Karavias T, Konradt J. Die posteriore Proctorectotomie. Chirurg 1978;49:265–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 9.
    Heintz A, Morschel M, Junginger T. Comparison of results after transanal endoscopic microsurgery and radical resection for T1 carcinoma of the rectum. Surg Endosc 1998;12:1145–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 10.
    Hemingway D, Flett M, McKee RF, Finlay IG. Sphincter function after transanal endoscopic microsurgical excision of rectal tumors. Br J Surg 1996;83:51–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 11.
    Hermanek P, Gall FP. Early (microinvasive) colorectal carcinoma. Pathology, diagnosis, surgical treatment. Int J Colorect Dis 1986;1:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 12.
    Ikeda Y, Koyanagi N, Mori M, Akahoshi K, Ueyama T, Sugimachi K. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for T1 rectal cancer in patients with synchronous colorectal cancer. Surg Endosc 1999;7:710–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 13.
    Langer C, Markus P, Liersch T, Fuzesi L, Becker H. UltraCision or high-frequency knife in transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM)? Advantages of a new procedure. Surg Endosc 2001;5:513–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 14.
    Mentges B, Buess G, Effinger G, Manncke K, Becker HD. Indications and results of local treatment of rectal cancer. Br J Surg 1997;84:348–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 15.
    Morson BC, Sobin LH Histological typing of intestinal tumors. International histological classification of tumors, WHO, Geneva 1976 vol 15: 56Google Scholar
  81. 16.
    Schildberg FW, Wenk H. Der posteriore Zugang zum Rektum. Chirurg 1986;57:779–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 17.
    Sitzler PJ, Seow-Choen F, Ho YH, Leong AP. Lymph node involvement and tumor depth in rectal cancers: an analysis of 805 patients. Dis Colon Rectum 1997;40:1472–1476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 18.
    Warneke J, Petrelli NJ, Herrera L. Local recurrence after sphincter-saving resection for rectal adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg 1989;158:3–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 19.
    Weber TK, Petrelli NJ. Local excision for rectal cancer: an uncertain future. Oncology (Huntingt) 1998;12:933–943;discussion 944–7Google Scholar
  85. 20.
    Winburn GB. Surgical resection of villous adenomas of the rectum. Am Surg 1998;64:1170–1173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 21.
    Winde G, Nottberg H, Keller R, Schmid KW, Bunte H. Surgical cure for early rectal carcinomas (T1). Transanal endoscopic microsurgery vs. anterior resection. Dis Colon Rectum 1996;39:969–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 1.
    McElwain JW, Bacon HE, Trimpi HD. Lymph node metastases: experience with aortic ligation of inferior mesenteric artery in cancer of the rectum. Surgery 1954;35:513–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 2.
    Pezim ME, Nicholls RJ. Survival after high or low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery during curative surgery for rectal cancer. Ann Surg 1984;200:729–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 3.
    Surtees P, Ritchie JK, Phillips RKS. High versus low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery in rectal cancer. Br J Surg 1990;77:618–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 4.
    Slanetz CA Jr, Grimson R. Effect of high and intermediate ligation on survival and recurrence rates following curative resection of colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1997;40:1205–1218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 5.
    Pollett WG, Nicholls RJ. The relationship between the extent of distal clearance and survival and local recurrence rates after curative anterior resection for carcinoma of the rectum. Ann Surg 1983;198:159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 6.
    Wilson SM, Beahrs OH. The curative treatment of carcinoma of the sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and rectum. Ann Surg 1976;183:556–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 7.
    Heimann TM, Oh C, Steinhagen RM, Greenstein AJ, Perez C, Aufses AH. Surgical treatment of tumors of the distal rectum with sphincter preservation. Ann Surg 1992;216:432–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 8.
    Shirouzu K, Isomotu H, Kakegawa T. Distal spread of rectal cancer and optimal distal margin of resection for sphincter-preserving surgery. Cancer 1995;76:388–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 9.
    Tonak J, Gall FP, Hermanek P, Hager TH. Incidence of local recurrence after curative operations for cancer of the rectum. Aust N Z J Surg 1982;52:23–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 10.
    Heald RJ, Husband EM, Ryall RD. The mesorectum in rectal cancer surgery — the clue to pelvic recurrence? Br J Surg 1982;69:613–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 11.
    Chapuis P, Bokey L, Fahrer M, Sinclair G, Bogduk N. Mobilization of the rectum. Anatomic concepts and the bookshelf revisited. Dis Col Rectum 2002;45:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 12.
    Heald RJ. The holy plane of rectal surgery. J R Soc Med 1988;81:503–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 13.
    Hainsworth PJ, Egan MJ, Cunliffe WJ. Evaluation of the policy of total mesorectal excision for rectal and rectosigmoid cancers. Br J Surg 1997;84:652–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 14.
    Phillips RK, Hittinger R, Blesovsky L, Fry JS, Fielding LP. Local recurrence following ‘curative’ surgery for large bowel cancer: II. The rectum and rectosigmoid. Br J Surg 1984;71:17–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 15.
    Holm T, Cedermark B, Haggmark T, Wilking N. Local recurrence after rectal cancer surgery. A surgical and oncological challenge. Lakartidningen 1994;91:232–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 16.
    Fegiz G, Indinnimeo M, Gozzo P, Del Grande E, Cataldi S, Brozzetti S. Low rectal cancer—what is the choice? Dis Colon Rectum 1994;37:535–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 17.
    Arbman G, Nilsson E, Hallbook O, Sjodahl R. Local recurrence following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Br J Surg 1996;83:375–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 18.
    McCall JL. Total mesorectal excision: evaluating the evidence. Aust N Z J Surg 1997;67:599–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 19.
    Moriya Y, Sugihara K, Akasu T, Fujita S. Patterns of recurrence after nerve-sparing surgery for rectal adenocarcinoma with special reference to loco-regional recurrence. Dis Colon Rectum 1995;38:1162–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 20.
    Aitken RJ. Mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Br J Surg 1996;83:214–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 21.
    Enker WE, Thaler HT, Cranor ML, Polyak T. Total mesorectal excision in the operative treatment of carcinoma of the rectum. J Am Coll Surg 1995;181:335–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 22.
    MacFarlane JK, Ryall RD, Heald RJ. Mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Lancet 1993;341:457–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 23.
    Tocchi A, Mazzoni G, Lepre L, Liotta G, Costa G, Agostini N, Miccini M, Scucchi L, Frati G, Tagliacozzo S. Total mesorectal excision and low rectal anastomosis for the treatment of rectal cancer and prevention of pelvic recurrences. Arch Surg 2001;136:216–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 24.
    Ratto C, Ricci R, Rossi C, Morelli U, Vecchio FM, Doglietto GB. Mesorectal microfoci adversely affect the prognosis of patients with rectal cancer. the prognosis of patients with rectal cancer. Dis Col Rectum 2002;45:733–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 25.
    Reynolds JV, Joyce WP, Dolan J, Sheahan K, Hyland JM. Pathological evidence in support of total mesorectal excision in the management of rectal cancer. Br J Surg 1996;83:1112–1115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 26.
    Ueno H, Mochizuki H. Clinical significance of extra-bowel skipped cancer infiltration in rectal cancer. Surg Today 1997;27:617–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 27.
    Ono C, Yoshinaga K, Enomoto M, Sugihara K. Discontinuous rectal cancer spread in the mesorectum and the optimal distal clearance margin in situ. Dis Col Rectum 2002;45:744–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 28.
    Maeda K, Maruta M, Utsumi T, Hosoda Y, Horibe Y. Does perifascial rectal excision (i.e. TME) when combined with the autonomic nerve-sparing technique interfere with operative radicality? Colorectal Disease 2002;4:233–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 29.
    Enker WE, Havenga K, Polyak T, Thaler H, Cranor M. Abdominoperineal resection via total mesorectal excision and autonomic nerve preservation for low rectal cancer. World J Surg 1997;21:715–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 30.
    Moriya Y, Sugihara K, Akasu T, Fujita S. Importance of extended lymphadenectomy with lateral node dissection for advanced lower rectal cancer. World J Surg 1997;21:728–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 31.
    Takahashi T, Ueno M, Azekura K, Ohta H. Lateral node dissection and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:S59–S68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 32.
    Takahashi T, Ueno M, Azekura K, Ohta H. Lateral ligament: its anatomy and clinical importance. Semin Surg Oncol 2000;19:386–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 33.
    Hojo K, Sawada T, Moriya Y. An analysis of survival and voiding, sexual function after wide iliopelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with carcinoma of the rectum, compared with conventional lymphadenectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 1989;32:128–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 34.
    Glass RE, Ritchie JK, Thompson HR, Mann CV. The results of surgical treatment of cancer of the rectum by radical resection and extended ab domino-iliac lymphadenectomy. Br J Surg 1985;72:599–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 35.
    Ratto C, Sofo L, Ippoliti M, Merico M, Bossola M, Vecchio FM, Foglietto GB, Crucitti F. Accurate lymph-node detection in colorectal specimens resected for cancer is of prognostic significance. Dis Col Rectum 1999;42:143–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 36.
    Esser S, Reilly WT, Riley LB, Eyvazzadeh C, Arcona S. The role of sentinel lymph node mapping in staging of colon and rectal cancer. Dis Col Rectum 2001;44:850–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 37.
    Lazorthes F, Fages P, Chiotasso P, Lemozy J, Bloom E. Resection of the rectum with construction of a colonic reservoir and coloanal anastomosis for carcinoma of the rectum. Br J Surg 1986;73:136–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 38.
    Nicholls RJ, Lubowski DZ, Donaldson DR. Comparison of colonic reservoir and straight coloanal reconstruction after rectal excision. Br J Surg 1988;75:318–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 39.
    Sweeney JL, Ritchie JK, Hawley PR. Resection and sutured peranal anastomosis for carcinoma of the rectum. Dis Col Rectum 1989;32:103–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 40.
    Parks AG, Percy JP. Resection and sutured coloanal anastomosis for rectal carcinoma. Br J Surg 1982;69:301–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 41.
    Keighley MRB, Matheson D. Functional results of rectal excision and endoanal anastomosis. Br J Surg 1980;67:757–761PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 42.
    Cavaliere F, Pemberton JH, Cosimelli M, Fazio VW, Beart RW. Coloanal anastomosis for rectal cancer. Long-term results at the Mayo and Cleveland Clinics. Dis Col Rectum 1995;38:807–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 43.
    Suzuki H, Matsumoto K, Amano S, Fujioka M, Honzumi M. Anorectal pressure and rectal compliance after low anterior resection. Br J Surg 1980;67:655–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 44.
    Williams NS, Price R, Johnston D. The long-term effect of sphincter preserving operations for rectal carcinoma on function of the anal sphincter in man. Br J Surg 1980;67:203–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 45.
    Parc R, Tiret E, Frileux P, Moszkowoski E, Loygue J. Resection and coloanal anastomosis with colonic reservoir for rectal carcinoma. Br J Surg 1986;73:138–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 46.
    Santoro GA, Makhdoomi KR, Eitan BZ, Bartolo DCC. Functional outcome after coloanal anastomosis with J-colonic pouch for rectal cancer. Ann Ital Chir 1998;LXIX,4:485–489Google Scholar
  133. 47.
    Brown SR, Seow-Choen F. Preservation of rectal function after low anterior resection with formation of a neorectum. Semin Surg Oncol 2000;19:376–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 48.
    Sagamata Y, Takase Y, Oya M. Scintigraphic comparison of neorectal emptying between clonic J-pouch anastomosis and straight anastomosis after stapled low anterior resection. J Colorectal Dis 2003;18:355–360Google Scholar
  135. 1.
    Lopez-Kostner F, Lavery IC, Hool GR, Rybicki LA, Fazio VW. Total mesorectal excision is not necessary for cancers of the upper rectum. Surgery 1998;124:612–617;discussion 617–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 2.
    Peeters KC, Kapiteijn E, van de Velde CJ; Dutch ColoRectal Cancer Group. Managing rectal cancer: the Dutch experience. Colorectal Dis 2003;5:423–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 3.
    Hida J, Yasutomi M, Maruyama T, Fujimoto K, Nakajima A, Uchida T, Wakano T, Tokoro T, Kubo R, Shindo K. Indication for using high ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery in rectal cancer surgery. Examination of nodal metastases by the clearing method. Dis Colon Rectum 1998;41:984–987; discussion 987–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 4.
    Adachi Y, Inomata M, Miyazaki N, Sato K, Shiraishi N, Kitano S. Distribution of lymph node metastasis and level of inferior mesenteric artery ligation in colorectal cancer. J Clin Gastroenterol 1998;26:179–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 5.
    Penfold JC. A comparison of restorative resection of carcinoma of the middle third of the rectum with abdominoperineal excision. Aust NZJ Surg 1974;44:354–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 6.
    Williams NS, Dixon MF, Johnston D. Reappraisal of the 5 centimetre rule of distal excision for carcinoma of the rectum: a study of distal intramural spread and of patient’s survival. Br J Surg 1983;70:150–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 7.
    Pollett WG, Nicholls RJ. The relationship between the extent of distal clearance and survival and local recurrence rates after curative anterior resection for carcinoma of the rectum. Ann Surg 1983;198:159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 8.
    Heald RJ, Husband EM, Ryall RDH. The mesorectum in rectal cancer surgery — the clue to pelvic recurrence? Br J Surg 1982;69:613–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 9.
    Quirke P, Durdey P, Dixon MF, Williams NS. Local recurrence of rectal adenocarcinoma due to inadequate surgical resection: histopathological study of lateral tumor spread and surgical excision. Lancet 1986;2:996–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 10.
    Andreola S, Leo E, Belli F, Bonfanti G, Sirizzotti G, Greco P, Valvo F, Tomasic G, Gallino GF. Adenocarcinoma of the lower third of the rectum surgically treated with a <10-MM distal clearance: preliminary results in 35 No patients. Ann Surg Oncol 2001;8:611–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 11.
    Birbeck KF, Macklin CP, Tiffin NJ, Parson W, Dixon MF, Mapstone NP et al. Rates of circumferential resection margin involvement vary between surgeons and predict outcome in rectal cancer surgery. Ann Surg 2002;235:449–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 12.
    Nagtegaal ID, van de Velde CJH, van der Worp E, Kapiteijn E, Quirke P, van Krieken. Kapiteijn E, Quirke P, van Krieken. Macroscopic evaluation of rectal cancer resection specimen: clinical significance of the pathologist in quality control. J Clin Onc 2002;20:1729–1734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 13.
    McCall JL, Cox MR, Wattchow DA. Analysis of local recurrence rates after surgery alone for rectal cancer. Int J Colorectal Dis 1995;10:126–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 14.
    Royal College of Surgeons of England, Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain, and Ireland. Guidelines for the management of colorectal cancer. 1996; p25Google Scholar
  149. 15.
    Heald RJ. Total mesorectal excision is optimal surgery for rectal cancer: a Scandinavian consensus. Br J Surg 1995;82:1297–1299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 16.
    Carlsen E, Schlichting E, Guldvog I, Johnson E, Heald RJ. Effect of the introduction of TME for the treatment of rectal cancer. Br J Surg 1998;85:526–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 17.
    Heald RJ, Karanjia ND. Results of radical surgery for rectal cancer. World J Surg 1992;16:848–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 18.
    Nesbakken A, Nygaard K, Lunde OC. Mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: functional outcome after low anterior resection and colorectal anastomosis without reservoir. Colorectal Disease 2002;4:172–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 19.
    Beart RW Jr. Mesorectal excision for rectal carcinoma: the new standard? Adv Surg 1999;32:193–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 20.
    Scott N, Jackson P, al-Jaberi T, Dixon MF, Quirke P, Finan PJ. TME and local recurrence: a study of tumor spread in the mesorectum distal to rectal cancer. Br J Surg 1995;82:1031–1033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 21.
    Sjodahl R. The role of total mesorectal excision in rectal cancer surgery. EJSO 2001;27:440–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 22.
    Beck DE, Wexner SD. Fundamentals of anorectal surgery. WB Saunders Company Limited 1998Google Scholar
  157. 23.
    Killingback M, Barron P, Dent OF. Local recurrence after curative resection of cancer of the rectum without total mesorectal excision. Dis colon Rectum 2001;44:473–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 24.
    Takahashi T, Ueno M, Azekura K, Ohta H. Lateral node dissection and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:S59–S68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 25.
    Moreira LF, Hizuta A, Iwagaki H, et al. Lateral lymphn-ode dissection for rectal cancer below the peritoneal reflection. Br J Surg 1994;81:293–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 26.
    Ho YH, Seow-Choen F, Tan M. Colonic J-pouch function at six months versus straight coloanal anastomosis at two years: randomized controlled trial. World J Surg 2001;25:876–881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 27.
    Furst A, Burghofer K, Hutzel L, Jauch KW. Neorectal reservoir is not the functional principle of the colonic J-pouch: the volume of a short colonic J-pouch does not differ from a straight coloanal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:660–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 28.
    Z’graggen K, Maurer CA, Buchler MW. Transverse coloplasty pouch. A novel neorectal reservoir. Dig Surg 1999;16:363–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 29.
    Pimentel JM, Duarte A, Gregorio C, Souto P, Patricio J. Transverse coloplasty pouch and colonic J-pouch for rectal cancer: a comparative study. Colorectal Dis 2003;5:465–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 30.
    Furst A, Suttner S, Agha A, Beham A, Jauch KW. Colonic J-pouch vs. coloplasty following resection of distal rectal cancer: early results of a prospective, randomized, pilot study. Dis Colon Rectum 2003;46:1161–1166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. ai]31.
    Ho YH, Brown S, Heah SM, Tsang C, Seow-Choen F, Eu KW, Tang CL. Comparison of J-pouch and coloplasty pouch for low rectal cancers: a randomized, controlled trial investigating functional results and comparative anastomotic leak rates. Ann Surg 2002;236:49–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 32.
    Machado M, Nygren J, Goldman S, Ljungqvist O Similar outcome after colonic pouch and side-to-end anastomosis in low anterior resection for rectal cancer: a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg 2003;238:214–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 1.
    Turnbull RB, Kyle K, Watson F, et al. Cancer of the colon: the influence of the no-touch technique on survival rates. Ann Surg 1967;166:420–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 2.
    Quirke P, Durdey P, Dixon M, et al. Local recurrence of rectal adenocarcinoma due to inadequate surgical resection. Histopathology study of lateral tumor spread and surgical excision. Lancet 1986;2:996–999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 3.
    Lavery IC, Lopex-Kostner F, Fazio VW, et al. Chances of cure are not compromised with sphincter-saving procedures for cancer of the lower third of the rectum. Surgery 1997;122:779–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 4.
    Lopez-Kostner F, Lavery IC, Hool G, et al. Total mesorectal excision is not necessary for cancers of the upper rectum. Surgery 1998;124:612–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 5.
    Moriya Y, Sugihara K, Akasu T, et al. Importance of extended lymphadenectomy with lateral node dissection for advanced lower rectal cancer. World J Surg 1997;21:728–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 6.
    Takahashi T, Ueno M, Azekura K, et al. Lateral node dissection and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:S59–S68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 7.
    Ortiz H, Armendariz P. Anterior resection: do the patients perceive any clinical benefit? Int J Colorectal Dis 1996;11:191–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 8.
    Parc R, Tiret E, Frileux P, et al. Resection and colo-anal anastomosis with colonic reservoir for rectal carcinoma. Br J Surg 1986;73:139–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 9.
    Lazorthes F, Fages P, Chiotasso P, et al. Resection of the rectum with construction of a colonic reservoir and colo-anal anastomosis for carcinoma of the rectum. Br J Surg 1986;73:136–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 10.
    Dennett ER, Parry BR. Misconceptions about the colonic J-pouch: what the accumulating data show. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:804–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 11.
    Lazorthes F, Gamagami R, Chiotasso P, et al. Prospective, randomized study comparing clinical results between small and large colonic J-pouch following coloanal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum 1997;40:1409–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 12.
    Hida J, Yasutomi M, Maruyama T, et al. Indications for colonic J-pouch reconstruction after anterior resection for rectal cancer: determining the optimum level of anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum 1998; 41:558–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 13.
    Seow-Choen F, Goh HS. Prospective randomized trial comparing colonic J-pouch anastomosis and straight coloanal reconstruction. Br J Surg 1995;82:608–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 14.
    Lazorthes F, Chiotasso P, Gamagami RA, et al. Late clinical outcome in a randomized prospective comparison of colonic J-pouch and straight coloanal anastomosis. Br J Surg 1997;84:1449–1451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 15.
    Joo JS, Latulippe JF, Alabaz O, et al. Long-term functional evaluation of straight coloanal anastomosis and colonic J-pouch: is functional superiority of the colonic J-pouch sustained? Dis Colon Rectum 1998; 41:740–746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 16.
    Harris GJC, Lavery IC, Fazio VW. Function of a colonic J-pouch continues to improve with time. Br J Surg 2001;88:1623–1627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 17.
    Z’graggen K, Maurer CA, Mettler D, et al. A novel colonic reservoir for rectal construction: description of the technique. Gastroenterology 1997;112:A1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 18.
    Z’graggen K, Maurer CA, Mettler K, et al. A novel colon pouch and its comparison with a straight coloanal and colon J-pouch-anal anastomosis: preliminary results in pigs. Surgery 1999;125:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 19.
    Z’graggen K, Maurer CA, Buchler MW. Transverse coloplasty pouch: a novel neorectal reservoir. Dig Surg 1999;16:363–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 20.
    Fazio VW, Mantyh CR, Hull TL. Colonic “coloplasty”: novel technique to enhance low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:1448–1450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 21.
    Mantyh CR, Hull TL, Fazio VW. Coloplasty in low colorectal anastomosis: manometric and functional comparison to straight and colonic J-pouch anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:37–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 22.
    Zutshi M, Remzi F, Lavery IC, et al. Functional outcome and complications of coloplasty pouch for low coloanal and colorectal anastomosis. Podium presentation at the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Chicago Illinois June 6, 2002Google Scholar
  189. 1.
    Milsom JW, Böhm B, Hammerhofer KA, Fazio VW, Steiger E, Elson P. A prospective, randomized trail comparing laparoscopic versus conventional techniques in colorectal cancer surgery: a preliminary report. J Am Coll Surg 1998;187:46–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 2.
    Fazio VW, Lopez-Kostner F. Role of laparoscopic surgery for treatment of early colorectal carcinoma. World J Surgery 2000;24:1056–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 3.
    Wexner SD, Cohen SM, Johansen O, Nogueras J, Jagelman D. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a prospective assessment and current prospective. Br J Surg 1993;80:1602–1605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 4.
    Wexner SD, Cohen SM. Port site metastases after laparoscopic surgery for cure of malignancy: a plea for caution. Br J Surg 1995;82:295–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 5.
    Weiser M, Milsom JW. Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision with autonomic nerve preservation. Semin Surg Oncol 2000;19:396–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 6.
    Lezoche E, Feliciotti F, Paganini AM, Guerrieri M, Campagnacci R, De Sanctis A. Laparoscopic colonic resections versus open surgery: a prospective nonrandomized study on 310 unselected cases. Hepato-gastroenterology 2000;47:697–708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 7.
    Hartley JE, Mehigan BJ, Qureshi AE, Duthie GS, Lee PWR, Monson JRT. Total mesorectal excision: assessment of the laparoscopic approach. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:315–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 8.
    Scheidbach H, Schmeider C, Hugel O, Scheurlein H, Barlehner E, Konradt J, Wittekind C, Kockerling F. Oncological quality and preliminary long-term results in laparoscopic colorectel surgery. Surg Endosc 2003;17:903–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 8.
    Agachan F, Wexner SD. Controversies in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. G Chir 1996;17:77–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 9.
    Prasad A, Avery C, Foley RJG. Abdominal wall metastases following laparoscopy. Br J Surg 1994;81:1697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 11.
    Berends FJ, Kazemier G, Bonjer HJ, Lange JF. Subcutaneous metastases after laparoscopic colectomy. Lancet 1994;344:58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 12.
    Boulez J, Herriot E. Multicentric analysis of laparoscopic colorectal surgery in FDCL group: 274 cases. Br J Surg 1994;81:527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 13.
    Ramos JM, Beart RW, Goes SM, Ortega AE, Schlinkert RT. Role of laparoscopy in colorectal surgery. A prospective evaluation of 200 cases. Dis Colon Rectum 1995;38:494–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 14.
    Fingerhut A. Laparoscopic-assisted colonic resection: the French experience. In: Jager R, Wexner SD (eds). Laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1996:253–257Google Scholar
  203. 15.
    Tomita H, Marcello PW, Milsan JW. Laparoscopic surgery of the colon and rectum. World J Surg 1999;23:397–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 16.
    Fleshman JW, Fry RD, Birnbaum EH, Kodner IJ. Laparoscopic assisted and minilaparotomy approaches to colorectal diseases are similar in early outcome. Dis Colon Rectum 1996;39:15–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 17.
    Vukasin P, Ortega AE, Greene FL, Steele GD, Simons AJ, Anthone GJ, Weston LA, Beart RW. Wound recurrence following laparoscopic colon resection: results of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Laparoscopic Registry. Dis Colon Rectum 1996;39: S20–S23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 18.
    Pollett WG, Nicholls RJ. The relationship between the extent of distal clearance and survival and local recurrence rates after curative anterior resection for carcinoma of the rectum. Ann Surg 1983;198:159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 19.
    McElwain JW, Bacon HE, Trimpi HD. Lymph node metastases: experience with aortic ligation of inferior mesenteric artery in cancer of the rectum. Surgery 1954;35:513–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 20.
    Pezim ME, Nicholls RJ. Survival after high or low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery during curative surgery for rectal cancer. Ann Surg 1984;200:729–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 21.
    Lord SA, Larach SW, Ferrara A, Williamson PR, Lago CP, Lube MW. Laparoscopic resections for colorectal carcinoma. A three-year experience. Dis Colon Rectum 1996;39:148–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 22.
    Tate JJ, Kwok S, Dawson JW, Lau WY, Li AK. Prospective comparison of laparoscopic and conventional anterior resection. Br J Surg 1993;80:1396–1398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 23.
    Darzi A, Lewis C, Menzies-Gow N, Guillou PJ, Monson JR. Laparoscopic abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Surg Endosc 1995;9:414–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 24.
    Zucker KA, Pitcher DE, Martin DT, Ford RS. Laparoscopic-assisted colon resection. Surg Endosc 1994;8:12–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 25.
    Glass RE, Ritchie JK, Thompson HR. The results of surgical treatment of cancer of the rectum by radical resection and extended abdominosacral lym-phadenectomy. Br J Surg 1985;72;599–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 26.
    Leung KL, Kwok SPY, Lau WY, Meng WCS, Chung CC, Lai PBS, Kwong KH. Laparoscopic-assisted abdominoperineal resection for low rectal adenocarcinoma. Surg Endosc 2000;14:67–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 1.
    Vining DJ Virtual colonoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Amer 1997;7:285–291Google Scholar
  216. 2.
    Arulampalam TH, Costa DC, Loizidou M, Visvikis D, Ell PJ, Taylor I. Positron emission tomography and colorectal cancer. Br J Surg 2001;88:176–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 3.
    Kapiteijn E, Marijnen CA, Nagtegaal ID, Putter H, Steup WH, Wiggers T, Rutten HJT, Pahlman L, Glimelius B, van Krieken JHJM, Leer JWH, Van de Velde C. Preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision for resectable rectal cancer N Engl J Med 2001345: 638–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 4.
    Milsom JW, Bohm B, Hammerhofer KA, Fazio VW, Steiger E, Elson P. A prospective, randomized trial comparing laparoscopic versus conventional techniques in colorectal cancer surgery: a preliminary report. J Am Coll Surg 1998;187: 46–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 5.
    Wexner SD, Cohen SM, Johansen O, Nogueras J, Lago CP, Lube MW. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a prospective assessment and current perspective. Br J Surg 1993;80:1602–1605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 6.
    Lacy AM, Garcia V, Delgado S et al. Laparoscopy assisted colectomy versus open colectomy for treatment of non-metastatic colon cancer: a randomized trial. Lancet 2002;359:2224–2229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 7.
    MRC CLASICC Collaborators. Proceedings of the Tripartite Colorectal meeting, Melbourne October 2002Google Scholar
  222. 8.
    Jayne D. Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: where to after CLASICC? Ass Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland — Update 2003;4–7Google Scholar
  223. 9.
    Fried GM, Derossis AM, Bothwell J, Sigman HH. Comparison of laparoscopic performance in vivo with performance measured in a laparoscopic simulator. Surg Endosc 1999;13:1077–1081PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 10.
    Rosser JC, Rosser LE, Savalgi RS. Objective evaluation of a laparoscopic skill program for residents and senior surgeons. Arch Surg 1998;133:657–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 11.
    Rogers DA, Elstein AS, Bordage G. Improving continuing medical education for surgical techniques: applying the lessons learned in the first decade of minimal access surgery. Ann Surg 2001:233:159–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 12.
    Ballantyne GH. Robotic surgery, telerobotic surgery, telepresence and telemonitoring. Review of early clinical results. Surg Endosc 2002;16:1389–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 1.
    Inoue Y, Kimura T, Noro H et al. Is laparoscopic colorectal surgery less invasive than classical open surgery? Quantification of physical activity using an accelerometer to assess postoperative convalescence. Surg Endosc 2003;17:1269–1273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 2.
    Scheidbach H, Scneider C, Hugel O et al. Oncological quality and preliminary long-term results in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Surg Endosc 2003,17:903–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 3.
    Hazebroek EJ. COLOR: a randomized clinical trial comparing laparoscopic and open resection for colon cancer. Surg Endosc 2002;16:949–953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 4.
    Morino M, Parini U, Giraudo G et al. Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision. A consecutive series of 100 patients. Ann Surg 2003;237:335–342Google Scholar
  231. 5.
    Saha S, Bilchik A, Wiese D. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in colorectal cancer. In H.S. Cody III, Martin Dunitz, London 2002Google Scholar
  232. 6.
    Sim R, Milsom JW. Laparoscopic resection of the rectosigmoid colon. In F.L. Greene, B.T. Heniford, Springer, New York 2001Google Scholar
  233. 7.
    Quah H, Jayne DG, Eu KW, Seow-Choen F. Bladder and sexual dysfunction following laparoscopically assisted and conventional open mesorectal resection for cancer. Br J Surg 2002;89:1551–1556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 8.
    COR-CPO, Regione Piemonte — Linee guida clinico organizzative sui tumori del colon-retto. Assessorato Sanità Regione Piemonte 2001Google Scholar
  235. 1.
    Kruskal JB, Kane RA. Intraoperative ultrasonography of the liver. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging 1995;36:175–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 2.
    Takeuchi N, Ramirez JM, Mortensen NJ, Cobb R, Whittlestone T. Intraoperative ultrasonography in the diagnosis of hepatic metastases during surgery for colorectal cancer. Int J Colorect Dis 1996;11:92–95Google Scholar
  237. 3.
    Marchesa P, Milsom JW, Hale JC, O’Malley CM, Fazio VW. Intraoperative laparoscopic liver ultrasonography for staging of colorectal cancer: initial experience. Dis Colon Rectum 1996;39:873–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 4.
    Durup Scheel-Hincke J, Mortensen MB, Pless T, Hovendal C. Laparoscopic four-way ultrasound probe with histologic biopsy facility using a flexible tru-cut needle. Surg Endosc 2000;14: 867–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 5.
    Solbiati L, Livraghi T, Goldberg SN, Ierace T, Meloni F, Dellanoce M, Cova L, Halpern EF, Gazelle GS. Percutaneous radio-frequency ablation of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer: long-term results in 117 patients. Radiology 2001;221:159–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 6.
    Foroutani A, Garland AM, Berber E, String A, Engle K, Ryan TL, Pearl JM, Siperstein AE. Laparoscopic ultrasound vs. triphasic computed tomography for detecting liver tumors. Arch Surg 2000;135:933–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 7.
    Milsom JW, Jerby BL, Kessler H, Hale JC, Herts BR, O’Malley CM. Prospective, blinded comparison of laparoscopic ultrasonography vs. contrast-enhanced computerized tomography for liver assessment in patients undergoing colorectal carcinoma surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:44–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 8.
    Hartley JE, Kumar H, Drew PJ, Heer K, Avery GR, Duthie GS, Monson JRT. Laparoscopic ultrasound for the detection of hepatic metastases during laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:320–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 1.
    Ballantyne GH. Robotic surgery, telerobotic surgery, telepresence, and telementoring. Surg Endosc 2002; 16:1389–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 2.
    Cadière GB, Himpens J, Germay O, Izizaw R, Degueldre M, Vadromme J, Capelluto E, Bruyns J. Feasibility of robotic laparoscopic surgery: 146 cases. World J Surg 2001;25:1467–1477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 3.
    Chapman WHH, Albrecht RJ, Kim VB, Young JA, Chitwood WR. Computer-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy with the Da Vinci surgical robot. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech 2002;12:155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 4.
    Ruurda JP, Broeders IAMJ, Simmermacher RPM, Borel Rinkes IHM, Van Vroonhoven TJMV Feasibility of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2002;12:41–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 5.
    Weber PA, Stephen M, Wasielewski A, Ballantyne GH. Telerobotic-assisted laparoscopic right and sigmoid colectomies for benign disease. Dis Col Rectum 2002;45:1689–1696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 6.
    Kim VB, Chapman WHH, Albrecht RJ, Marcus Bailey M, Young JA, Wiley Nifong L, Chitwood WR. Early experience with telemanipulative robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy using da Vinci. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2002;12:33–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 7.
    Marescaux J, Smith MK, Fölscher D, Jamali F. Telerobotic laparoscopic cholecystectomy: initial clinical experience with 25 patients. Ann Surg 2001;234:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 1.
    Garcia-Ruiz A, Gagner M, Miller JH, Steiner CP, Hahn JF Manual vs. robotically assisted laparoscopic surgery in the performance of basic manipulation and suturing tasks. Arch Surg 1998;133,957–961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 2.
    Reichenspurner H, Boehm D, Reichart B. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery using three-dimensional video and robotic assistance. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999;11:235–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 3.
    White P, Carbajal-Ramos A, Gracia C, Nunez-Gonzales E, Bailey R, Broderick T, DeMaria E, Hollands C, Soper N. A prospective randomized study of the Zeus robotic surgical system for laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery. Proceedings of the SAGES 2003 Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, March 12–15. S027, 81Google Scholar
  253. 4.
    White P, Carbajal-Ramos A, Gracia C, Nunez-Gonzales E, Bailey R, Broderick T, DeMaria E, Hollands C, Soper N. A prospective randomized study of the Zeus robotic surgical system for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Proceedings of the SAGES 2003 Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, March 12–15. S061, 89Google Scholar
  254. 5.
    Braga M, Vignali A, Gianotti L, Zuliani W, Radaelli G, Gruarin P, Dellabona P, Di Carlo V. Laparoscopic versus open colorectal surgery: a randomized trial on short-term outcome. Ann Surg 2002;236:759–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 6.
    Lacy AM, Garcia-Valdecasas JC, Delgado S, Castells A, Taura P, Pique JM, Visa J. Laparoscopy-assisted colectomy versus open colectomy for treatment of non-metastatic colon cancer: a randomized trial. Lancet. 2002;359:2224–2229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 7.
    McArdle CS, Hole D. Impact of variability among surgeons on postoperative morbidity and mortality and ultimate survival. BMJ 1991;302:1501–1505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 8.
    Birbeck KF, Macklin CP, Tiffin NJ, Parsons W, Dixon MF, Mapstone NP, Abbott CR, Scott N, Finan PJ, Johnston D, Quirke P. Rates of circumferential resection margin involvement vary between surgeons and predict outcomes in rectal cancer surgery. Ann Surg 2002;235:449–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 9.
    Marescaux J, Leroy J, Gagner M, Rubino F, Mutter D, Vix M, Butner SE, Smith MK. Nature 2001;413:379–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 10.
    Mack MJ. Minimally invasive and robotic surgery. JAMA 2001;285:568–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. A. Santoro
  • G. Di Falco
  • M. Trompetto
  • C. O. Finne
  • C. Pastore
  • K. Miller
  • I. Zorcolo
  • D. C. C. Bartolo
  • T. Hull
  • T. H. A. Arulampalam
  • C. G. S. Hüscher
  • G. Melotti
  • A. D’Annibale
  • E. Morpurgo
  • J. B. Kruskal
  • J. Marescaux
  • F. Rubino

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations