Advertisement

Endoluminal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal carcinoma

  • G. A. Santoro
  • G. Di Falco
  • D. M. Schaffzin
  • W. D. Wong
  • T. Muto

Abstract

Staging of rectal cancer has assumed new meaning and importance in recent times. Dukes’ classification (1932) remains the most commonly used staging system today [1]. It was intended to provide a pathologic basis for prognosis in patients with rectal cancer.

Keywords

Rectal Cancer Rectal Wall Rectal Carcinoma Preoperative Staging Rectal Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Dukes CE. The classification of cancer of the rectum. J Pathol 1932;35:323–332Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Astler VB, Coller F. The prognostic significance of direct extension of carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Ann Surg 1954;139:846–851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hildebrandt U, Feifel G. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound. Dis Colon Rectum 1985;28:42–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Herzog U, von Flue M, Tondelli P, Schuppisser JP. How accurate is endorectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal cancer? Dis Colon Rectum 1993;36:127–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sentovich S, Blatchford G, Falk P, Thorson A, Christensen M. Transrectal ultrasound of rectal tumors. Am J Surg 1993;166:638–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anderson BO, Hann LE, Enker WE, Dershaw DD, Guillem JG, Cohen AM. Transrectal ultrasonography and operative selection for early carcinoma of the rectum. J Am Coll Surg 1994;179:513–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harnsberger JR, Charvat P, Longo WE, Vernava AM, Salimi Z, Arends T, Daniel G. The role of intrarectal ultrasound in staging of rectal cancer and detection of extrarectal pathology. Am Surg 1994;60:571–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Glaser F, Schlag P, Herfarth C. Endorectal ultrasonography for the assessment of invasion of rectal tumors and lymph node involvement. Br J Surg 1990;77:883–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Holdsworth PJ, Johnston D, Chalmers AG, Chennells P, Dixon MF, Finan PJ, Primrose JN, Quirke P. Endoluminal ultrasound and computed tomography in the staging of rectal cancer. Br J Surg 1988;75:1019–1022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Orrom WJ, Wong WD, Rothenberger DA, Jensen LL, Goldberg SM. Endorectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal tumors. A learning experience. Dis Colon Rectum 1990;33:654–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hulsmans FJ, Castelijns JA, Reeders JW, Tytgat GN. Review of artifacts associated with transrectal ultrasound: understanding, recognition and prevention of misinterpretation. J Clin Ultrasound 1995;23:483–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yamashita Y, Machi J, Shirouzu K, Morotomi T, Isomoto H, Kakegawa T. Evaluation of endorectal ultrasound for the assessment of wall invasion of rectal cancer: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum 1988;31:362–368Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dershaw DD, Enker WE, Cohen AM, Sigurdson ER. Transrectal ultrasonography of rectal carcinoma. Cancer 1990;66:2336–2340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beynon J, Mortensen NJ, Foy DM, Channer JL, Virjee J, Goddard P. Preoperative assessment of local invasion in rectal cancer: digital examination, endoluminal sonography or computed tomography Br J Surg 1986;73:1015–1017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Garcia-Aguilar J, Pollack J, Lee S-H, Hernandez de Anda E, Mellgren A, Wong WD, Finne CO, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD. Accuracy of endorectal ultrasonography in preoperative staging of rectal tumors. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:10–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Akasu T, Sunouchi K, Sawada T, Tsioulias GJ, Muto T, Morioka Y. Preoperative staging of rectal carcinoma: prospective comparison of transrectal ultrasonography and computed tomography. Gastroenterology 1990;98:268Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jochem RJ, Reading CC, Dozois RR, Carpenter HA, Wolff BG, Charboneau JW. Endorectal ultrasonograpic staging of rectal carcinoma. Mayo Clin Proc 1990;65:1571–1577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sailer M, Leppert R, Bussen D, Fuchs KH, Thiede A. Influence of tumor position on accuracy of endorectal ultrasound staging. Dis Colon Rectum 1997;40:1180–1186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim HJ, Wong WD. Role of endorectal ultrasound in the conservative management of rectal cancers. Semin Surg Oncol 2000;19:358–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Santoro GA, Pastore C, Barban M, Di Falco G. Role of endorectal ultrasound in the management of rectal cancers. Hepato-Gastroenterology 2001;48(SI):CXIXGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kruskal JB, Sentovich SM, Kane RA. Staging of rectal cancer after polypectomy: usefulness of endorectal US. Radiology 1999;211:31–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mier AG, Barton PP, Heuhold NR, Herbst F, Teleky BK, Lechner GL. Peritumor tissue reaction at transrectal US as a possible cause of overstaging in rectal cancer: histopathologic correlation. Radiology 1997;203:785–789Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Katsura Y, Yamada K, Ishizawa T, Yoshinaka H, Shimazu H. Endorectal ultrasonography for the assessment of wall invasion and lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1992;35:362–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boyce GA, Sivak MV, Lavery IC, Fazio VW, Church JM, Milsom J, Petras R. Endoscopic ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 1992;38:468–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Senesse P, Khemissa F, Lemanski C, Masson B, Quenet F, Saint-Aubert B, Simony J, Ychou M, Dubois JB, Rouanet P. Contribution of endorectal ultrasonography in preoperative evaluation for very low rectal cancer. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2001;25:24–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Romano G, de Rosa P, Vallone G, Rotondo A, Grassi R, Santangelo ML. Intrarectal ultrasound and computed tomography in the pre-and postoperative assessment of patients with rectal cancer. Br J Surg 1985; 72(suppl):s117–s119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rifkin MD, Ehrlich SM, Marks G. Staging of rectal carcinoma: prospective comparison of endorectal US and CT. Radiology 1989;170:319–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wazier A, Zitron S, Ben-Baruch D, Baniel J, Wolloch Y, Dintsman M. Comparative study for preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1989;32:53–56Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goldman S, Arvidson H, Normig U, Lagerstedt U, Magnusson I, Frisell J. Transrectal ultrasound and computed tomography in preoperative staging of lower rectal adenocarcinoma. Gastrointestinal Radiol 1991;16:259–263Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Waizer A, Powsner E, Russo I, Hadar S, Cytron S, Lombrozo R, Wolloch Y, Antebi E. Prospective comparative study of magnetic resonance imaging versus transrectal ultrasound for preoperative staging and follow-up of rectal cancer: preliminary report. Dis Colon Rectum 1991;34:1068–1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thaler W, Watzka S, Martin F, Guardia GL, Psenner K, Bonatti G, Fichtel G, Egarter-Vigl E, Marzoli GP. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by endoluminal ultrasound vs. magnetic resonance imaging, preliminary results of a prospective comparative study. Dis Colon Rectum 1994;37:1189–1193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Starck M, Bohe M, Fork FT, Lindstrom C, Sjoberg S. Endoluminal ultrasound and low-field magnetic resonance imaging are superior to clinical examination in the preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Eur J Surg 1995;161:841–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Joosten FB, Jansen JB, Joosten HJ, Rosenbusch G. Staging of rectal carcinoma using MR double surface coil, MR endorectal coil and intrarectal ultrasound: correlation with histopathologic findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1995;19:752–758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zerhouni EA, Rutter C, Hamilton SR, Balfe DM, Megibow AJ, Francis IR, Moss AA, Heiken JP, Tempany CM, Aisen AM, Weinreb JC, Gatsonis C, McNeil BJ. CT and MR imaging in the staging of colorectal carcinoma: report of the Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group II. Radiology 1996;200:443–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zagoria RJ, Scharlb CA, Ott DJ, Bechtoldt RI, Wolfman NT, Scharling ES, Chen MY, Loggie BW. Assessment of rectal tumor infiltration utilizing endorectal MR imaging and comparison with endoscopic rectal sonography. J Surg Oncol 1997;64:312–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kim NK, Kim MJ, Yun SH, Sohn SK, Min JS. Comparative study of transrectal ultrasonography, pelvic computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:770–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kim NK, Kim MJ, Park JK, Park SI, Min JS. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer with MRI: accuracy and clinical usefulness. Ann Surg Oncol 2000;7:732–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Civelli EM, Gallino G, Mariani L, Cozzi G, Biganzoli E, Salvetti M, Gallo R, Belli F, Bonfanti G, Bertario L, Andreola S, Leo E. Double-contrast barium enema and computerised tomography in the pre-operative evaluation of rectal carcinoma: are they still useful diagnostic procedures? Tumori 2000;86:389–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Meyenberger C, Huch Boni RA, Bertschinger P, Zala GF, Klotz HP, Krestin GP. Endoscopic ultrasound and endorectal magnetic resonance imaging: a prospective, comparative study for preoperative staging and follow-up of rectal cancer. Endoscopy 1995;27:469–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gualdi GF, Casciani E, Gadalaxara A, d’Orta C, Polettini E, Pappalardo G. Local staging of rectal cancer with transrectal ultrasound and endorectal magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with histological findings. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43:338–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hunerbein M, Pegios W, Bau R, Vogl TJ, Felix R, Schlag PM. Prospective comparison of endorectal ultrasound, three-dimensional ultrasound and endorectal MRI in the preoperative evaluation of rectal tumors. Preliminary results. Surg Endosc 2000;14:1005–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kim JC, Cho YK, Kim SY, Park SK, Lee MG. Comparative study of three-dimensional and conventional endorectal ultrasonography used in rectal cancer staging. Surg Endosc 2002;16:1280–1285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 1.
    Bernick PE, Wong WD. Staging. What makes sense? Can the pathologist help? Surg Oncol Clin North Am 2000;9:703–723Google Scholar
  44. 2.
    Hildebrandt U, Feifel G. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound. Dis Colon Rectum 1985;28:42–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 3.
    Heintz A, Buess G, Frank K, Kuntz C, Strunck H, Junginger T. Endoluminal ultrasonic examination of sessile polyps and early carcinomas of the rectum. Surg Endosc 1989;3:92–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 4.
    Adams WJ, Wong WD. Endorectal ultrasonic detection of malignancy within rectal villous lesions. Dis Colon Rectum 1995;38:1093–1096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 5.
    Garcia-Aguilar J, Pollack J, Lee S-H, Hernandez de Anda E, Mellgren A, Wong WD, Finne CO, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD. Accuracy of endorectal ultrasonography in preoperative staging of rectal tumors. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:10–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 6.
    Glaser F, Schlag P, Herfarth C. Endorectal ultrasonography for the assessment of invasion of rectal tumors and lymph node involvement. Br J Surg 1990;77:883–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 7.
    Orrom WJ, Wong WD, Rothenberger DA, Jensen LL, Goldberg SM. Endorectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal tumors. A learning experience. Dis Colon Rectum 1990;33:654–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 8.
    Konishi K, Akita X, Kaneko K et al. Evaluation of endoscopic ultrasonography in colorectal villous lesions. Int J Colorectal Dis 2003;18:19–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 1.
    Hildebrandt U, Feifel G. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound. Dis Colon Rectum 1985;28:42–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 2.
    Boyce GA, Sivak MV, Lavery IC, Fazio VW, Church JM, Milsom J, Petras R. Endoscopic ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 1992;38:468–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 3.
    Bernick PE, Wong WD. Staging. What makes sense? Can the pathologist help? Surg Oncol Clin North Am 2000;9:703–723Google Scholar
  54. 4.
    Akasu T, Kondo H, Morioka Y, Sugihara K, Gotoda T, Fujita S, Muto T, Kakizoe T. Endorectal ultrasonography and treatment of early stage rectal cancer. World J Surg 2000;24:1061–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 5.
    Sailer M, Leppert R, Kraemer M, Fuchs KH, Thiede A. The value of endorectal ultrasound in the assessment of adenomas, T1-and T2-carcinomas. Int J Colorectal Dis 1997;12:214–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 6.
    Adams WJ, Wong WD. Endorectal ultrasonic detection of malignancy within rectal villous lesions. Dis Colon Rectum 1995;38:1093–1096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 7.
    Strunk H, Heintz A, Frank K, Buess G, Braunstein S. Endosonographic staging of rectal tumors. Fortschr Rontgenstr 1990;153:373–378Google Scholar
  58. 8.
    Kim JC, Yu CS, Jung HY, Kim HC, Park SK, Kang GH, Lee MG. Source of errors in the evaluation of early rectal cancer by endoluminal ultrasonography. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:1302–1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 9.
    Nascimbeni R, Burgart LJ, Nivatvongs S, Larson DR. Risk of lymph node metastasis in Ti carcinoma of the colon and rectum. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:200–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 1.
    Hildebrandt U, Feifel G. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound. Dis Colon Rectum 1985;28:42–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 2.
    Boyce GA, Sivak MV, Lavery IC, Fazio VW, Church JM, Milsom J, Petras R. Endoscopic ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 1992;38:468–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 3.
    Bernick PE, Wong WD. Staging. What makes sense? Can the pathologist help? Surg Oncol Clin North Am 2000;9:703–723Google Scholar
  63. 4.
    Sailer M, Leppert R, Kraemer M, Fuchs KH, Thiede A. The value of endorectal ultrasound in the assessment of adenomas, Ti-and T2-carcinomas. Int J Colorectal Dis 1997;12:214–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 5.
    Katsura Y, Yamada K, Ishizawa T, Yoshinaka H, Shimazu H. Endorectal ultrasonography for the assessment of wall invasion and lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1992; 35:362–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 6.
    Kim NK, Kim MJ, Yun SH, Sohn SK, Min JS. Comparative study of transrectal ultrasonography, pelvic computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:770–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 7.
    Akasu T, Kondo H, Morioka Y, Sugihara K, Gotoda T, Fujita S, Muto T, Kakizoe T. Endorectal ultrasonography and treatment of early stage rectal cancer. World J Surg 2000;24:1061–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 8.
    Adams WJ, Wong WD. Endorectal ultrasonic detection of malignancy within rectal villous lesions. Dis Colon Rectum 1995;38:1093–1096PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 9.
    Kim JC, Yu CS, Jung HY, Kim HC, Park SK, Kang GH, Lee MG. Source of errors in the evaluation of early rectal cancer by endoluminal ultrasonography. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:1302–1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 10.
    Heriot AG, Grundy A, Kumar D. Preoperative staging of rectal carcinoma. Br J Surg 1999;86:17–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 11.
    Kim JC, Cho YK, Kim SY, Park SK, Lee MG. Comparative study of three-dimensional and conventional endorectal ultrasonography used in rectal cancer staging. Surg Endosc 2002;16:1280–1285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 1.
    Hildebrandt U, Feifel G. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound. Dis Colon Rectum 1985;28:42–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 2.
    Boyce GA, Sivak MV, Lavery IC, Fazio VW, Church JM, Milsom J, Petras R. Endoscopic ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 1992;38:468–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 3.
    Bernick PE, Wong WD. Staging. What makes sense? Can the pathologist help? Surg Oncol Clin North Am 2000;9:703–723Google Scholar
  74. 4.
    Glaser F, Schlag P, Herfarth C. Endorectal ultrasonography for the assessment of invasion of rectal tumors and lymph node involvement. Br J Surg 1990;77:883–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 5.
    Garcia-Aguilar J, Pollack J, Lee S-H, Hernandez de Anda E, Mellgren A, Wong WD, Finne CO, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD. Accuracy of endorectal ultrasonography in preoperative staging of rectal tumors. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:10–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 6.
    Kim NK, Kim MJ, Yun SH, Sohn SK, Min JS. Comparative study of transrectal ultrasonography, pelvic computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:770–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 7.
    Kim JC, Cho YK, Kim SY, Park SK, Lee MG. Comparative study of three-dimensional and conventional endorectal ultrasonography used in rectal cancer staging. Surg Endosc 2002;16:1280–1285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 1.
    Hildebrandt U, Feifel G. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound. Dis Colon Rectum 1985; 28:42–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 2.
    Bernick PE, Wong WD. Staging. What makes sense? Can the pathologist help? Surg Oncol Clin North Am 2000; 9:703–723Google Scholar
  80. 3.
    Boyce GA, Sivak MV, Lavery IC, Fazio VW, Church JM, Milsom J, Petras R. Endoscopic ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc 1992; 38:468–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 4.
    Milsom JW, Graffner H. Intrarectal ultrasonography in rectal cancer staging and in the evaluation of pelvic disease. Ann Surg 1990; 212:602–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 1.
    Kwok H, Bissett IP, Hill GL. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Int J Colorectal Dis 2000;15:9–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 2.
    Hunerbein M, Pegios W, Rau B, Vogl TJ, Felix R, Schlag PM. Prospective comparison of endorectal ultrasound, three-dimensional endorectal ultrasound, and endorectal MRI in the preoperative evaluation of rectal tumors. Preliminary results. Surg Endosc 2000;14:1005–1009Google Scholar
  84. 3.
    Herzog U, von Flue M, Tondelli P, Schuppisser JP. How accurate is endorectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal cancer? Dis Colon Rectum 1993;36:127–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 4.
    Rifkin MD, Ehrlich SM, Marks G. Staging of rectal carcinoma: prospective comparison of endorectal US and CT. Radiology 1989;170:319–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 5.
    Marusch F, Koch A, Schmidt U et al. Routine use of transrectal ultrasound in rectal carcinoma: results of a prospective multicenter study. Endoscopy 2002;34:385–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 6.
    Garcia-Aguilar J, Pollack J, Lee SH et al. Accuracy of endorectal ultrasonography in preoperative staging of rectal tumors. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:10–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 7.
    Orrom WJ, Wong WD, Rothenberger DA, Jensen LL, Goldberg SM. Endorectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal tumors. A learning experience. Dis Colon Rectum 1990;33:654–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 8.
    Akbari RP, Wong WD. Endorectal ultrasound and the preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Scand J Surg 2003;92:25–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 9.
    Sitzler PJ, Seow-Choen F, Ho YH, Leong AP. Lymph node involvement and tumor depth in rectal cancers: an analysis of 805 patients. Dis Colon Rectum 1997; 40:1472–1476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 10.
    Janjan NA, Khoo VS, Abbruzzese J et al. Tumor down-staging and sphincter preservation with preoperative chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer: the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999;44:1027–1038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 11.
    Rivadeneira DE, Wong WD. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2001;15:17–25Google Scholar
  93. 12.
    Kim NK, Kim MJ, Yun SH, Sohn SK, Min JS. Comparative study of transrectal ultrasonography, pelvic computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in preoperative staging of rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:770–775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 13.
    Adams DR, Blatchford GJ, Lin KM, Ternent CA, Thorson AG, Christensen MA. Use of preoperative ultrasound staging for treatment of rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1999;42:159–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 14.
    Nissan A, Shia J, Klimstra D et al. Can endorectal ultrasound stratify T-staging of primary rectal cancer? Booth P23. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44:A27–A59Google Scholar
  96. 1.
    Hermanek P, Hutter RV, Sobin LH, Wittekind Ch. International Union Against Cancer. Classification of isolated tumor cells and micrometastasis. Cancer 1999;86:2668–2673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 2.
    Choi HJ, Choi YY, Hong SH. Incidence and prognostic implications of isolated tumor cells in lymph nodes from patients with Dukes B colorectal carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45: 750–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 3.
    Hildebrandt U, Klein G, Schwarz HR Endosonography of parectal lymph nodes. In vitro and in vivo evaluation. Dis Colon Rectum 1990;33:863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 4.
    Herzog U, von Flue M, Tondelli P, Schuppisser JP. How accurate is endorectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal cancer? Dis Colon Rectum 1993;36:127–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 5.
    Sentovich S, Blatchford G, Falk P, Thorson A, Christensen M. Transrectal ultrasound of rectal tumors. Am J Surg 1993;166:638–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 6.
    Fleshman JW, Myerson RJ, Fry RD, Kodner IJ. Accuracy of transrectal ultrasound in predicting pathologic stages of rectal cancer before and after preoperative radiation therapy. Dis Colon Rectum 1992;35:823–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 7.
    Orrom WJ, Wong WD, Rothenberger DA, Jensen LL, Goldberg SM. Endorectal ultrasound in the preoperative staging of rectal tumors. A learning experience. Dis Colon Rectum 1990;33:654–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 8.
    Glaser F, Schlag P, Herfarth C. Endorectal ultrasonography for the assessment of invasion of rectal tumors and lymph node involvement. Br J Surg 1990; 77:883–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 9.
    Holdsworth PJ, Johnston D, Chalmers AG, Chennells P, Dixon MF, Finan PJ, Primrose JN, Quirke P. Endoluminal ultrasound and computed tomography in the staging of rectal cancer. Br J Surg 1988;75:1019–1022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 10.
    Milsom JW, Czyrko C, Hull TL, Strong SA, Fazio VW Preoperative biopsy of pararectal lymph nodes in rectal cancer using endoluminal ultrasonography. Dis Colon Rectum 1994;47:364–368Google Scholar
  106. 11.
    Saitoh N, Okui K, Sarashina H, Suzuki M, Arai T, Nunomura M. Evaluation of ecographic diagnosis of rectal cancer using intrarectal ultrasonic examination. Dis Colon Rectum 1986;29:234–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 12.
    Rifkin MD, Ehrlich SM, Marks G. Staging of rectal carcinoma: prospective comparison of endorectal US and CT. Radiology 1989;170: 319–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 13.
    Garcia-Aguilar J, Pollack J, Lee S-H, Hernandez de Anda E, Mellgren A, Wong WD, Finne CO, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD. Accuracy of endorectal ultrasonography in preoperative staging of rectal tumors. Dis Colon Rectum 2002;45:10–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 14.
    Akasu T, Sunouchi K, Sawada T, Tsioulias GJ, Muto T, Morioka Y Preoperative staging of rectal carcinoma: prospective comparison of transrectal ultrasonography and computed tomography. Gastroenterology 1990;98:268Google Scholar
  110. 15.
    Jochem RJ, Reading CC, Dozois RR, Carpenter HA, Wolff BG, Charboneau JW. Endorectal ultrasonograpic staging of rectal carcinoma. Mayo Clin Proc 1990;65:1571–1577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 16.
    Frascio F, Giacosa A. Role of endoscopy in staging colorectal cancer. Semin Surg Oncol 2001;20:82–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 17.
    Kim HJ, Wong WD. Role of endorectal ultrasound in the conservative management of rectal cancers. Semin Surg Oncol 2000;19:358–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 18.
    Napoleon B, Pujol B, Berger F, Valette PJ, Gerard JP, Souquet JC. Accuracy of endosonography in the staging of rectal cancer treated by radiotherapy. Br J Surg 1991;78:785–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 19.
    Santoro GA, Pastore C, Barban M, Di Falco G. Endorectal ultrasonography for the assessment of pararectal lymph node involvement in rectal cancer. Hepato-Gastroenterology 2001;48(SI):CXIXGoogle Scholar
  115. 20.
    Heriot AG, Grundy A, Kumar D. Preoperative staging of rectal carcinoma. Br J Surg 1999;86:17–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 21.
    Kumar A, Scholefield JH. Endosonography of the anal canal and rectum. World J Surg 2000;24:208–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 22.
    Hildebrandt U, Feifel G, Schwarz HP, Scherr O. Endorectal ultrasound: instrumentation and clinical aspects. Int J Colorectal Dis 1986;1:203–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 23.
    Beynon J, Mortensen NJ, Foy DM, Channer JL, Rigby H, Virjee J. Preoperative assessment of mesorectal lymph node involvement in rectal cancer. Br J Surg 1989;76:276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 24.
    Rifkin MD, Wechsler RI. A comparison of computed tomography and endorectal ultrasound in staging rectal cancer. Int J Colorect Dis 1986;1:219–223Google Scholar
  120. 25.
    Feifel, G, Hildebrandt U, Dhom G. Die endorektale Sonographie beim rektumkarzinom. Chirurg 1985;56: 398–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 26.
    Herrera-Ornelas L, Justiniano J, Castillo N, Petrelli NJ, Stulc JP, Mittelman A. Metastases in small lymph nodes from colon cancer. Arch Surg 1987;122:1253–1256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 27.
    Katsura Y, Yamada K, Ishizawa T, Yoshinaka H, Shimazu H. Endorectal ultrasonography for the assessment of wall invasion and lymph node metastases in rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 1992;35:362–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 28.
    Sunouchi K, Sakaguchi M, Higuchi Y, Namiki K, Muto T. Small spot sign of rectal carcinoma by endorectal ultrasonography: histologic relation and clinical impact on postoperative recurrence. Dis Colon Rectum 1998;41:649–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 29.
    Hulsmans FJ, Bosma A, Mulder PJ, Reeders JW, Tytgat GN. Perirectal lymph nodes in rectal cancer: in vitro correlation of sonographic parameters and histologic findings. Radiology 1992;184:553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 30.
    Civelli EM, Gallino G, Mariani L, Cozzi G, Biganzoli E, Salvetti M, Gallo R, Belli F, Bonfanti G, Bertario L, Andreola S, Leo E. Double-contrast barium enema and computerised tomography in the preoperative evaluation of rectal carcinoma: are they still useful diagnostic procedures? Tumori 2000;86:389–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 31.
    Goldman S, Arvidson H, Normig U, Lagerstedt U, Magnusson I, Frisell J. Transrectal ultrasound and computed tomography in preoperative staging of lower rectal adenocarcinoma. Gastrointestinal Radiol 1991;16:259–263Google Scholar
  127. 32.
    Kim JC, Cho YK, Kim SY, Park SK, Lee MG. Comparative study of three-dimensional and conventional endorectal ultrasonography used in rectal cancer staging. Surg Endosc 2002;16:1280–1285PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. A. Santoro
  • G. Di Falco
  • D. M. Schaffzin
  • W. D. Wong
  • T. Muto

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations