Hydrocephalus with Myelomeningocele

  • Spyros Sgouros


The incidence of myelomeningocele ranges between 0.2 and 2 per 1000 live births, with regional and racial variations [11]. The overall incidence of myelomeningocele has declined significantly in the last two decades, due to improved maternal nutrition during pregnancy with addition of folic acid and wider availability of prenatal diagnosis and therapeutic termination of pregnancy. The exact incidence of hydrocephalus in myelomeningocele is not known. In a significant proportion of patients hydrocephalus is absent at birth but develops in the first few weeks or months of life, indicating that there is a spectrum of manifestation [11]. Hydrocephalus is seen in postnatal neuroimaging obtained prior to closure of the defect in 15%–25% of children with myelomeningocele [11, 12], but in most surgical series the proportion of patients with myelomeningocele who require shunting reaches up to 8o%–90% (although inevitably there must be some sample bias in such series) [41, 59]. No obvious correlation between the level of the lesion and the presence of hydrocephalus has been shown [41,59].


Spina Bifida Shunt Infection Shunt Revision Aqueduct Stenosis Hindbrain Hernia 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Spyros Sgouros
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryBirmingham Children’s HospitalBirminghamUK

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