Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy

  • Giuseppe Cinalli


Attempts to surgically bypass the aqueductal obstruction in noncommunicating hydrocephalus began in the 1920s. In the modern era, Dandy was the first to create a direct communication between the third ventricle and chiasmatic cistern by opening the lamina terminalis using a subfrontal approach [43], or between the third ventricle and the interpeduncular cistern through the floor of the third ventricle using a subtemporal approach [44], [45]. His early subfrontal approach was rapidly abandoned, and only Voris reported some experience using the subtemporal approach [192]. Stookey and Scarff [177] modified the subfrontal approach, opening the lamina terminalis, entering the third ventricle, and then perforating the floor of the third ventricle into the interpeduncular cistern [130], [144]. Others proposed limiting the procedure to the opening of the lamina terminalis, and obtained comparable results [196].


Burr Hole Minim Invasive Obstructive Hydrocephalus Aqueductal Stenosis Shunt Malfunction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Akdemir H, Kurtsoy A, Oktem IS, Menku A, Kemal Koç R, Tucer B: Failure of third ventriculostomy for shunt infections in infants. Pediatr Neurosurg 30:305–309, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aleman J, Jokura H, Higano S, Akabane A, Shirane R, Yoshimoto T: Value of constructive interference in steadystate, three-dimensional, Fourier transformation magnetic resonance imaging for the neuroendoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus and intracranial cysts. Neurosurgery 48:1291, 2001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amano T, Inamura T, Nakamizo A, Inoha S, Wu CM, Ikezaki K: Case management of hydrocephalus associated with the progression of childhood brain stem gliomas. Child’s Nerv Syst 18:599–604, 2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ambesh SP, Kumar R: Neuroendoscopic procedures: anesthetic considerations for a growing trend: a review. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 12:262–270, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anandh B, Madhusudan Reddy KR, Mohanty A, Umamaheswara Rao GS, Chandramouli BA: Intraoperative bradycardia and postoperative hyperkalemia in patients undergoing endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 45:154–157, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Auer LM, Auer DP: Virtual endoscopy for planning and simulation of minimally invasive neurosurgery. Neurosurgery 43:529, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Backlund BO, Grepe A, Lunsford D: Stereotaxic reconstruction of the aqueduct of Sylvius. J Neurosurg 55:800–810, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baskin JJ, Manwaring KH, Rekate HL: Ventricular shunt removal: the ultimate treatment of the slit ventricle syndrome. J Neurosurg 88:478–484, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bech RA, Bogeskov L, Borgesen SE, Juhler M: Indications for shunt insertion or III ventriculostomy in hydrocephalic children, guided by lumbar and intraventricular infusion tests. Child’s Brain 15:213–218, 1999Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beems T, Grotenhuis JA: Is the success rate of endoscopic third ventriculostomy age-dependent? An analysis of the results of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in young children. Child’s Nerv Syst 18:605–608, 2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bellotti A, Rapana A, Iaccarino C, Schonauer: Intracranial pressure monitoring after endoscopic third ventriculostomy: an effective method to manage the ‘adaptation period’. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 103:223–227, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Benabarre A, Ibanez J, Boget T, Obiols J, Martinez Aran A, Vieta E: Neuropsychological and psychiatric complications in endoscopic third ventriculostomy: a clinical case report. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 71:268–271, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bognar L, Borgulya G, Benke P, Madarassy G: Analysis of CSF shunting procedure requirement in children with posterior fossa tumors. Child’s Nerv Syst 2003; epub 23 April, print 19:332–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Böschert J, Hellwig D, Krauss JK: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for shunt dysfunction in occlusive hydrocephalus: long-term follow up and review. J Neurosurg 98:1032–1039, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brasil AV, Schneider FL: Anatomy of Liliequist’s membrane. Neurosurgery 32:956–960, 1993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brocklehurst G: Trans-callosal ventriculochiasmatic cisternostomy. A new approach to hydrocephalus. Surg Neurol 2:109–114, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brockmeyer D, Abtin K, Carey L, Walker M: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy: an outcome analysis. Pediatr Neurosurg 28:236–240, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Broggi G, Dones I, Feroli P, Franzini A, Servello D, Duca S: Image guided neuroendoscopy for third ventriculostomy. Acta Neurochir 142:893–899, 2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Büki A, Doczi T, Veto F, Horvath Z, Gallyas F: Initial clinical experience with a combined pulsed holmiumneodymium-YAG laser in minimally invasive neurosurgery. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 42:35–40, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burtscher J, Dessl A, Bale R, Eisner W, Auer A, Twerdy K, Felber S: Virtual endoscopy for planning endoscopic third ventriculostomy procedure. Pediatr Neurosurg 32:77–82, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Butler WE, Khan SA: The application of controlled intracranial hypertension in slit ventricle syndrome patients with obstructive hydrocephalus and shunt malfunction. Pediatr Neurosurg 35:305–310, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Buxton N, Macarthur D, Mallucci C, Punt J, Vloeberghs M: Neuroendoscopy in the premature population. Child’s Nerv Syst 14:649–652, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Buxton N, Macarthur D, Mallucci C, Punt J, Vloeberghs M: Neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy in patients less than 1 year old. Pediatr Neurosurg 29:73–76, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buxton N, Ho KJ, Macarthur D, Vloeberghs M, Punt J, Robertson I: Neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus in adults: Report of a single unit’s experience with 63 cases. Surg Neurol 55:74–78, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Buxton N, Turner B, Ramli N, Vloeberghs M: Changes in third ventricular size with neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy: a blinded study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72:385–387, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Buxton N, Jaspan T, Punt J: Treatment of Chiari malformation, syringomyelia and hydrocephalus by neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 45:231–234, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Caemaert J: Comment to Broggi, et al: Acta Neurochir 142:899, 2000Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carpentier A, Brunelle F, Philippon J, Clemenceau S: Obstruction of Magendie’s and Luschka’s foramens. Cine MRI, aetiology and pathogenesis. Acta Neurochir 143:517–522, 1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cartmill M, Vloeberghs M: The use of transendoscopic Doppler ultrasound as a safety-enhancing measure during neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy. Eur J Pediatr Surg 9(Suppl I)150–151, 1999Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cartmill M, Vloeberghs M: The fate of the cerebrospinal fluid after neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy. Child’s Nerv Syst 16:879–881, 2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cartmill M, Jaspan T, McConachie N, Vloeberghs M: Neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy in dysmorphic brains. Child’s Nerv Syst 17:391–394, 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Choi JU, Kim DS, Kim SH: Endoscopic surgery for obstructive hydrocephalus. Yonsei Med J 40:600–607, 1999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cinalli G: Alternatives to shunting. Child’s Nerv Syst 15:718–731, 1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cinalli G, Sainte-Rose C, Chumas P, Zerah M, Brunelle F, Lot G, Pierre-Kahn A, Renier D: Failure of third ventriculostomy in the treatment of aqueductal stenosis in children. Neurosurg 90:448–454, 1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cinalli G, Salazar C, Yada JZ, Zerah M, Brunelle F, Lot G, Pierre-Kahn A, Renier D, Sainte-Rose C: The role of third ventriculostomy in the management of shunt malfunction. Neurosurgery 43:1323–1329, 1998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cinalli G, Sainte-Rose C, Simon I, Lot G, Sgouros S: Sylvian aqueduct syndrome and global dorsal midbrain dysfunction associated with shunt malfunction. J Neurosurg 90:227–236, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cinalli G, Ruggiero C, Aliberti F, Maggi G: ICP monitoring following endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children. Child’s Nerv Syst 18:548, 2002Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cipri S, Cafarelli F: Successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy in noncommunicating thoracic syringomyelia. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 144:93–95, 2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Connor SEJ, O’Gorman R, Summers P, Simmons A, Moore EM, Chandler C, Jarosz JM: SPAMM, cine phase-contrast imaging and fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging in the study of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow. Clin Radiol 56:763–772, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Czosnyka M, Whitehouse H, Smielewski P, Simac S, Pickard JD: Testing of cerebrospinal compensatory reserve in shunted and non-shunted patients: a guide to interpretation based on an observational study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 60:549–558, 1996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dandy W: Extirpation of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle in communicating hydrocephalus. Ann Surg 68:569–579, 1918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dandy WE: Diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus resulting from strictures of the aqueduct of Sylvius. Surg Gynec Obstet 31:340–358, 1920Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dandy WE: An operative approach for hydrocephalus. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 33:189–190, 1922Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dandy WE: Surgery of the brain. In: Lewis’ practice of surgery, vol 12. Prior, Hagerstown, pp 671–688, 1932Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dandy WE: Diagnosis and treatment of strictures of the aqueduct of Sylvius (causing hydrocephalus). Arch Surg 51:1–14, 1945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Davis L: Neurological surgery. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, p 405, 1936Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Decq P, Leguerinel C, Palfi S, Djindjian M, Keravel Y, Nguyen JP: A new device for endoscopic third ventriculostomy. J Neurosurg 93:509–512, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Decq P, Le Guérinel C, Sol JC, Brugières P, Djindjian M, Nguyen JP: Chiari I malformation: a rare cause of noncommunicating hydrocephalus treated by third ventriculostomy. J Neurosurg 95:783–790, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Doczi T, Veto F, Horvath Z: Clinical analysis of 89 consecutive 3rd ventriculostomies (abstract). Minim Invasive Neurosurg 41:112, 1998Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Drake JM: Ventriculostomy for treatment of hydrocephalus. Neurosurg Clin North Am 4:657–666, 1993Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Elbabaa SK, Steinmetz M, Ross J, Moon D, Luciano M: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus in the pediatric population: evaluation of outcome. Eur J Pediatr Surg n(Suppl I): 552–554, 2001Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    El-Dawlatly AA, Murshid WR, El-Khwsky F: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy: a study of intracranial pressure vs heamodynamic changes. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 42:198–200, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    El-Dawlatly AA, Murshid WR, Elshimy A, Magboul MA, Samarkandi A, Takrouri MS: The incidence of bradycardia during endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Anesth Analg 91:1142–1144, 2000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Elvidge AR: Treatment of obstructive lesions of the aqueduct of Sylvius and the fourth ventricle by interventriculostomy. J Neurosurg 24:11–23, 1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fabregas N, Lopez A, Valero R, Carrero E, Caral L, Ferrer E: Anesthetic management of surgical neuroendoscopies: usefulness of monitoring the pressure inside the neuroendoscope. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 12:21–28, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fabregas N, Valero R, Carrero E, Tercero J, Caral L, Zavala E, Ferrer E: Episodic high irrigation pressure during surgical neuroendoscopy may cause intermittent intracranial circulatory insufficiency. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 13:152–157, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ferrer E, Santamarta D, Garcia-Fructuoso G, Caral L, Rumià J: Neuroendoscopic management of pineal region tumors. Acta Neurochir 139:12–21, 1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Figaji AA, Fieggen AG, Peter JC: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in tuberculous meningitis. Child’s Nerv Syst 19:217–225, 2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Forjaz S, Martelli N, Latuf N: Hypothalamic ventriculostomy with catheter. Technical note. J Neurosurg 29:655–659, 1966Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Frim DM, Goumnerova L: Telemetric intraventricular pressure measurement after third ventriculostomy in a patient with noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 41:1425–1428, 1997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fritsch MJ, Mehdorn M: Endoscopic intraventricular surgery for treatment of hydrocephalus and loculated CSF space in children less than one year of age. Pediatr Neurosurg 36:183–188, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fukuhara T, Vorster SJ, Ruggieri P, Luciano MG: Third ventriculostomy patency: comparison of findings at cine phase-contrast MR imaging and at direct exploration. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 20:1560–1566, 1999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fukuhara T, Vorster SJ, Luciano MG: Risk factors for failure of endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 46:1100–1111, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fukuhara T, Vorster SJ, Luciano MG: Critical shunt-induced subdural hematoma treated with combined pressure-programmable valve implantation and endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Pediatr Neurosurg 33:37–42, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fukuhara T, Luciano MG: Clinical features of late-onset idiopathic aqueductal stenosis. Surg Neurol 55:132–137, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fukuhara T, Luciano MG, Kowalski RJ: Clinical features of third ventriculostomy failures classified by fenestration patency. Surg Neurol 58:102–110, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Fukushima T, Ishijima B, Hirakawa K, et al: Ventriculofiberscope: a new technique for endoscopic diagnosis and operation. J Neurosurg 38:251–256, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Goumnerova LC, Frim D: Treatment of hydrocephalus with third ventriculostomy: outcome and CSF flow patterns. Pediatr Neurosurg 27:149–152, 1997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Griffith HB: Technique of fontanelle and persutural ventriculoscopy and endoscopic ventricular surgery in infants. Child’s Brain 1:359–363, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Grunert P, Charalampaki P, Hopf N, Filippi R: The role of third ventriculostomy in the management of obstructive hydrocephalus. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 46:16–21, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Grunert P, Perneczky A, Resch K: Endoscopic procedures through the foramen of Monro under stereotactic conditions. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 37:2–8, 1994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Guiot G: Ventriculo-cisternostomy for stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius. Puncture of the floor of the third ventricle with a leucotome under television control. Acta Neurochir 28:275–289, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hader WJ, Drake J, Cochrane D, Sparrow 0, Johnson ES, Kestle J: Death after late failure of third ventriculostomy in children. J Neurosurg 97:211–215, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Handler MH, Abott R, Lee M: A near fatal complication of endoscopic third ventriculostomy: case report. Neurosurgery 35:525–527, 1994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hashish H, Guenot M, Mertens P, Sindou M: Hydrocéphalie chronique de l’adulte par occlusion membranaire congénitale de l’ouverture médiane du quatrième ventricule (foramen de Magendie). Neurochirurgie 45:232–236, 1999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Haw C, Steinbok P: Ventriculoscope tract recurrence after endoscopic biopsy of pineal germinoma. Pediatr Neurosurg 34:215–217, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hayashi N, Endo S, Hamada H, Shibata T, Fukuda 0, Takaku A: Role of pre-operative midsagittal magnetic resonance imaging in endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 42:79–82, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hayashi N, Hamada H, Hirashima Y, Kurimoto M, Takaku A, Endo S: Clinical features in patients requiring reoperation after failed endoscopic procedures for hydrocephalus. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 43:181–186, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hellwig D, Bauer BL: Endoscopic procedures in stereotactic neurosurgery. Acta Neurochir Suppl 52:30–32, 1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hellwig D, Bauer BL: Stereotactic-endoscopic procedures on processes of the midline. Acta Neurochir Suppl 53:23–32, 1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hellwig D, Riegel T, Bertalanffy H: Neuroendoscopic techniques in treatment of intracranial lesions. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol 7:123–135, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hellwig D, Heinemann A, Riegel T: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus caused by primary aqueductal stenosis. In Hellwig D, Bauer B (eds) Minimally invasive techniques for neurosurgery. Springer, Berlin, pp 65–72, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hellwig D, Haag R, Bartel V, Riegel T, Eggers F, Becker R, Bertalanffy H: Application of new electrosurgical devices and probes in endoscopic neurosurgery. Neurol Res 21:67–72, 1999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hirsch JF: Percutaneous ventriculocisternostomies in non-communicating hydrocephalus. Monogr Neurol Sci 8:170–178, 1982Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hirsch JF, Hirsch E, Sainte-Rose C, Renier D, Pierre-Kahn A: Stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius. Etiology and treatment. J Neurosurg Sci 30:29–36, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hoffman HJ, Harwood-Nash D, Gilday DL, Craven MA: Percutaneous third ventriculostomy in the management of noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 7: 313–321, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hopf NJ, Grunert P, Fries G, Resch KDM, Perneczky A: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy: outcome analysis of 100 consecutive procedures. Neurosurgery 44: 795–804, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hopf NJ, Grunert P, Darabi K, Busert C, Bettag: Frameless neuronavigation applied to endoscopic neurosurgery. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 42:187–193, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Inamura T, Morioka T, Nishio S, Ikezaki K, Nonaka H, Yoshiura T: Diverticular enlargement of the foramina of Luschka and congenital hydrocephalus. Child’s Nerv Syst 18:652–655, 2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jack CR Jr, Kelly PJ: Stereotactic third ventriculostomy: assessment of patency with MR imaging. AJNR Am J Roentgenol 10:515–522, 1989Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Jaksche H, Loew F: Burr hole third ventriculostomy: An unpopular but effective procedure for treatment of certain forms of occlusive hydrocephalus. Acta Neurochir 79:48–51, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Javadpour M, Mallucci C, Brodbelt A, Golash A, May P: The impact of endoscopic third ventriculostomy on the management of newly diagnosed hydrocephalus in infants. Pediatr Neurosurg 35:131–135, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jellinger G: Anatomopathology of nontumoral aqueductal stenosis. J Neurosurg Sci 30:1–161986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jones RF, Stening WA, Brydon M. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Neurosurgery 26:86–91, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jones RFC, Stening WA, Kwok BCT, Sands TM: Third ventriculostomy for shunt infection in children. Neurosurgery 32:855–860, 1993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jones RFC, Kwok BCT, Stening WA: The current status of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the management of non-communicating hydrocephalus. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 37:28–36, 1994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Joseph VB, Raghuram L, Korah IP, Chacko AG: MR Ventriculography for the Study of CSF Flow. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 24:373–381, 2003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kamikawa S, Inui A, Kobayashi N, Kuwamura K, Kasuga M, Yamadori T, Tamaki N: Endoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus in children: a controlled study using newly developed Yamadori-type ventriculoscopes. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 44:25–30, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kanner A, Hopf NJ, Grunert P: The “optimal” burr hole position for endoscopic third ventriculostomy: results from 31 stereotactically guided procedures. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 43:187–189, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Karachi C, Le Guerinel C, Brugieres P, Melon E, Decq P: Hydrocephalus due to idiopathic stenosis of the foramina of Magendie and Luschka. Report of three cases. J Neurosurg 98:897–902, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kehler U, Gliemroth J: Extraventricular intracisternal obstructive hydrocephalus — a hypothesis to explain successful 3rd ventriculostomy in communicating hydrocephalus. Pediatr Neurosurg 38:98–101, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kehler U, Gliemroth J, Knopp U, Arnold H: How to perforate safely a resistent floor of the third ventricle? Technical note. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 41:198–199, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kehler U, Gliemroth J, Knopp U, Arnold H: The role of third ventriculostomy in previously shunted hydrocephalus. In: Hellwig D, Bauer B (eds) Minimally invasive techniques for neurosurgery. Springer, Berlin, pp 77–80, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kelly PJ: Stereotactic third ventriculostomy in patients with nontumoral adolescent/adult onset aqueductal stenosis and symptomatic hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg 75:865–873, 1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kelly PJ: Comments. Neurosurgery 41:1429, 1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Koch D, Grunert P, Filippi R, Hopf N: Re-ventriculostomy for treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus in cases of stoma dysfunction. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 45:158–163, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kulkarny AV, Drake JM, Armstrong DC, Dirks PB: Imaging correlates of successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy. J Neurosurg 92:915–919, 2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kwiek SJ, Mandera M, Baowski P, Luszawski J, Duda I, Wolwender A, Zymon-Zagorska A, Grzybowska K: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus: early and late efficacy in relation to aetiology. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 145:181–184, 2003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Laitt RD, Mallucci CL, Jaspan T, McConachie NS, Vloe-berghs M, Punt J: Constructive interference in steadystate 3D Fourier-transform MRI in the management of hydrocephalus and third ventriculostomy. Neuroradiology 41:117–123, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lapras C, Bret P, Patet JD, Huppert J, Honorato D: Hydrocephalus and aqueductal stenosis. Direct surgical treatment by interventriculostomy (Aqueduct cannulation). J Neurosurg Sci 30:47–53, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Leksell L: Surgical procedure for atresia of aqueduct of Sylvius. Acta Psychiatr Neurol 24:559–568, 1949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lev S, Bhadelia RA, Estin D, Heilman CB, Wolpert SM: Functional analysis of third ventriculostomy patency with phase-contrast MRI velocity measurements. Neuroradiology 39:175–179, 1997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Liliequist B: The anatomy of the subarachnoid cisterns. Acta Radiol 46:61–71, 1956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Liliequist B: The subarachnoid cisterns: an anatomical and roentgenologic study. Acta Radiol [Suppl] 185:1–108, 1959Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Macarthur DC, Robertson IJ, Punt J: Third ventricular cysts and membranes unsuspected on conventional CT and MRI. Br J Neurosurg 14:455–457, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Macarthur DC, Buxton N, Vloeberghs M, Punt J: The effectiveness of neuroendoscopic interventions in children with brain tumours. Child’s Nerv Syst 17:589–594, 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Magnaes B: Cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in adult patients with benign non-communicating hydrocephalus: one-hour test shunting and balanced cerebrospinal fluid infusion test to select patients for intracranial bypass operation. Neurosurgery 11:769–775, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Magnaes B: Hydromechanical testing in non-communicating hydrocephalus to select patients for microsurgical third ventriculostomy. Br J Neurosurg 3:443–450, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mandat T, Roszkowski M, Barszcz S, Podgorski JK, Jurkiewicz E: Neuroendoscopy in the treatment of third ventricular hydrocephalus accompanying tumors of the posterior part of the third ventricle in children. Neurol Neurochir Pol 36:711–722, 2002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Matson DD: Neurosurgery of infancy and childhood, 2nd edn. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1969Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Matsuno H, Rhoton AL: Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns. Neurosurgery 23:58–80, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    McNickle HF: The surgical treatment of hydrocephalus. A simple method of performing third ventriculostomy. Br J Surg 34:302–307, 1947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Metellus P, Dufour H, Levrier O, Grisoli F: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for treatment of noncommunicating syringomyelia associated with a Chiari I malformation and hydrocephalus: case report and pathophysiological considerations. Neurosurgery 51:500–503, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Miller MN: Organisation of the neuroendoscopy suite. In: Manwaring KH, Crone KR (eds) Neuroendoscopy, vol 1. Mary Ann Liebert, New York, pp 9–15, 1992Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Missir O, Dormont D, Pierot L: MR visualization of CSF flow through a ventriculocisternostomy. Neuroradiology 31:93–94, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Mixter WJ: Ventriculoscopy and puncture of the floor of the third ventricle. Preliminary report of a case. Boston Med Surg J 188:277–278, 1923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Mizoguchi M, Inamura T, Hikita T, Cheng CL, Ohgami S: Neuroendoscopic biopsy of tectal glioma: a case report. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 43:53–55, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Mohanty A, Anandh B, Sastry Kollury VR, Praharaj SS: Neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy in the management of fourth ventricular outlet obstruction. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 42:18–21, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Mohanty A, Vasudev MK, Sampath S, Radhesh S, Sastry Kolluri VR: Failed endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children: management options. Pediatr Neurosurg 37:304–309, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Morello G, Migliavacca F: Third ventriculostomy (Stookey & Scarff operation) in the treatment of benign aqueductal stenosis. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 7:417–424, 1959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Morota N, Watabe T, Inukai T, Hongo K, Nakagawa H: Anatomical variants in the floor of the third ventricle; implications for endoscopic third ventriculostomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 69:531–534, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Musolino A, Soria V, Munari C, Devaux B, Merienne L, Constans JP, Chodkiewicz JP: Stereotaxic ventriculocisternostomy in the treatment of obstructive triventricular hydrocephalus. A propos of 23 cases. Neurochirurgie 34:361–373, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Nishihara T, Hara T, Suzuki I, Kirino T, Yamakawa K: Third ventriculostomy for symptomatic syrinomyelia using flexible endoscope: case report. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 39:130–132, 1996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Nishiyama K, Mori H, Tanaka R: Changes in cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics following endoscopic third ventriculostomy for shunt-dependent noncommunicating hydrocephalus. J Neurosurg 98:1027–1031, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Nulsen FE, Spitz EB: Treatment of hydrocephalus by direct shunt from ventricle to jugular vein. Surg Forum 2: 399–402, 1952Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ogata H, Oka K, Mitsudome A: Hydrocephalus due to acute aqueductal stenosis following mumps infection: report of a case and review of the literature. Brain Dev 14: 417–419, 1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Oi S, Shibata M, Tominaga J, Honda Y, Shinoda M, Takei F, Tsugane R, Matsuzawa K, Sato O: Efficacy of neuroendoscopic procedures in minimally invasive preferential management of pineal region tumors: a prospective study. J Neurosurg 93:245–253, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Oi S, Kamio M, Joki T, Abe T: Neuroendoscopic anatomy and surgery in pineal region tumors: role of neuroendoscopic procedure in the ‘minimally-invasive preferential’ management. J Neurooncol 54:277–286, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Oka K, Tomonaga M: Instruments for flexible endoneurosurgery. In: Manwaring KH, Crone KR (eds) Neuroendoscopy, vol 1. Mary Ann Liebert, New York, pp 17–28, 1992Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Oka K, Go Y, Kin Y, Utsunomiya H, Tomonaga M: The radiographic restoration of the ventricular system after third ventriculostomy. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 38:158–162, 1995PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Oka K, Yoshiaki K, Yoshinori G, Yushi U, Katsuyuki H, Masamichi T, Tohru I, Susumu Y: Neuroendoscopic approach to tectal tumors: a consecutive series. J Neurosurg 91:964–970, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Paine KWE, McKissok W: Aqueduct stenosis. Clinical aspects, and results of treatment by ventriculocisternostomy (Torkildsen’s operation). J Neurosurg 12:127–145, 1955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Paladino J, Rotim K, Stimac D, Pirker N, Stimac A: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy with ultrasonic contact microprobe. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 43:132–134, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Patterson RH Jr, Bergland RM: The selection of patients for third ventriculostomy based on experience with 33 operations. J Neurosurg 29:252–254, 1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Perneczky A: Comment to Handler MH, et al: Neurosurgery 35:528, 1994Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Pierre-Kahn A, Reneir D, Bombois B, Askienay S, Moreau R, Hirsch J: La place de la ventriculocisternostomie dans le traitement des hydrocephalies non communicantes de l’enfant. Neurochirurgie 21:557–569, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Poblete M, Zamboni R: Stereotaxic ventriculocisternostomy. Confin Neurol 37:150–155, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Pople IK, Athanasiou TC, Sandeman DR, Coakham HB: The role of endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy in the management of pineal region tumours. Br J Neurosurg 15:305–311, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Putnam T: Treatment of hydrocephalus by endoscopic coagulation of the choroid plexus. N Engl J Med 210:1373–1376, 1934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Reddy K, Fewer HD, West M, et al: Slit ventricle syndrome with aqueduct stenosis. Third ventriculostomy as definitive treatment. Neurosurgery 23:756–759, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Resch KDM: Endo-neuro-sonography: first clinical series (52 cases). Child’s Nerv Syst 19:137–144, 2003Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Resch KDM, Reisch R: Endo-neuro-sonography: anatomical aspects of the ventricles. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 1:2–7, 1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Resch KDM, Perneczky A: Endo-neuro-sonography: basics and current use. In: Hellwig D, Bauer BL (eds) Minimally invasive techniques for neurosurgery. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 21–31, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Riegel T, Alberti O, Retsch, Shiratori V, Hellwig D, Bertalanffy H: Relationship of virtual reality neuroendoscopic simulations to actual imaging. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 43:176–180, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Riegel T, Alberti O, Hellwig D, Bertalanffy H: Operative management of third ventriculostomy in cases of thickened, non translucent third ventricular floor: Technical note. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 44:65–69, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Rieger A, Rainov NG, Brucke M, Marx T, Holz C: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is the treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus due to pediatric pineal tumors. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 43:83–86, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Rieger A, Rainov NG, Sanchin L, Schopp G, Burkert W: Ultrasound-guided endoscopic fenestration of the third ventricular floor for non-communicating hydrocephalus. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 39:17–20, 1996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Rieger A, Rainov NG, Sanchin L, Schopp G, Burkert W: Ultrasound-guided endoscopic fenestration of the third ventricle in obstructive hydrocephalus. In: Hellwig D, Bauer B (eds) Minimally invasive techniques for neurosurgery. Springer, Berlin, pp 81–85, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Robinson S, Cohen A: The role of neuroendoscopy in the treatment of pineal region tumors. Surg Neurol 40:360–365, 1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Rohde V, Reinges MHT, Krombach GA, Gilsbach JM: The combined use of image-guided frameless stereotaxy and neuroendoscopy for the surgical management of occlusive hydrocephalus and intracranial cysts. Br J Neurosurg 12:531–538, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Rohde V, Gilsbach JM: Anomalies and variants of the endoscopic anatomy for third ventriculostomy. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 43:111–117, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Rohde V, Krombach GA, Struffert T, Gilsbach JM: Virtual MRI endoscopy: detection of anomalies of the ventricular anatomy and its possible role as a presurgical planning tool for endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 143:1085–1091, 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Sainte-Rose C: Third ventriculostomy. In: Manwaring KH, Crone KR (eds) Neuroendoscopy. Mary Ann Liebert, New York, pp 47–62, 1992Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Sainte-Rose C, Chumas P: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Tech Neurosurg 1:176–184, 1995Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Sainte-Rose C, Cinalli G, Roux FE, Maixner W, Chumas PD, Mansour M, Carpentier A, Bourgeois M, Zerah M, Pierre-Kahn A, Renier D: Management of hydrocephalus in pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors: the role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy. J Neurosurg 95 791–797, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Sayers MP, Kosnik EJ: Percutaneous third ventriculostomy: Experience and technique. Child’s Brain 2:24–30, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Scarff JE: Treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus by puncture of lamina terminalis and floor of the third ventricle. J Neurosurg 8:204–213, 1951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Scarff JE: Treatment of hydrocephalus: a historical and critical review of methods and results. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 26:1–26, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Scarff JE: Evaluation of treatment of hydrocephalus. Results of third ventriculostomy and endoscopic cauterization of choroid plexus compared with mechanical shunts. Arch Neurol, 14:382–391, 1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Schijns OE, Beuls EA: Parinaud’s syndrome as a sign of acute obstructive hydrocephalus: recovery after acute ventriculostomy. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 46:1136–1140, 2002Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Schroeder HWS, Gaab MR: Endoscopic aqueductoplasty: technique and results. Neurosurgery 45:508–518, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Schroeder HWS, Niendorf WR, Gaab MR: Complications of endoscopic third ventriculostomy. J Neurosurg 96:1032–1040, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Schwartz TH, Yoon SS, Cutruzzola FW, Goodman RR: Third ventriculostomy: post-operative ventricular size and outcome. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 39:122–129, 1996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Schwartz TH, Ho B, Prestigiacomo CJ, Bruce JN, Feldstein NA, Goodman RR: Ventricular volume following third ventriculostomy. J Neurosurg 91:20–25, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Siomin V, Weiner H, Wisoff J, Cinalli G, Pierre-Kahn A, Sainte-Rose C, Abbott R, Elran H, Beni-Adani L, Ouaknine G, Constantini S: Repeat endoscopic third ventriculostomy: is it worth trying? Child’s Nerv Syst 17:551–555, 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Siomin V, Cinalli G, Grotenhuis A, Golash A, Oi S, Kothbauer K, Weiner H, Roth J, Beni-Adani L, Pierre-Kahn A, Takahashi M, Mallucci C, Abbott R, Wisoff J, Constantini S: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for patients with cerebrospinal fluid infections and/or hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 97:519–524, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Stookey B, Scarff JE: Occlusion of the aqueduct of Sylvius by neoplastic and non-neoplastic processes with rational surgical treatment for relief of resultant obstructive hydrocephalus. Bull Neurol Inst New York 5:348–377, 1936Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Suehiro T, Inamura T, Natori Y, Sasaki M, Fukui M: Successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus and syringomyelia associated with fourth ventricular outlet obstruction. J Neurosurg 93:326–329, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Teo C, Jones RFC, Stening WA: Neuroendoscopic third ventriculostomy. In: Matsumoto S (ed) Hydrocephalus: pathogenesis and treatment. Springer, New York, pp 680–691, 1991Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Teo C, Jones R: Management of hydrocephalus by endoscopic third ventriculostomy in patients with myelomeningocele. Pediatr Neurosurg 25:57–63, 1996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Teo C: Third ventriculostomy in the treatment of hydrocephalus: Experience with more than 120 cases. In: Hellwig D, Bauer B (eds) Minimally invasive techniques for neurosurgery. Springer, Berlin, pp, 73–76, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Thomson S, Tyagi AK, Chumas P: Intracranial calcification complicating neuroendoscopy. J Neurosurg 98:186–189, 2003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Tisell M, Almstrom O, Stephensen H, Tullberg M, Wikkelso C: How effective is endoscopic third ventriculostomy in treating adult hydrocephalus caused by primary aqueductal stenosis? Neurosurgery 46:104–110; discussion 110–111, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Tisell M, Edsbagge M, Stephensen H, Czosnyka M, Wikkelso C: Elastance correlates with outcome after endoscopic third ventriculostomy in adults with hydrocephalus caused by primary aqueductal stenosis. Neurosurgery 50:70–77, 2002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Torkildsen A: New palliative operation in cases of inoperable occlusion of the sylvian aqueduct. Acta Chir Scand 82:117–123, 1939Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Tuli S, Alshail E, Drake JM: Third ventriculostomy versus cerebrospinal fluid shunt as a first procedure in pediatric hydrocephalus. Pediatr Neurosurg 30:11–15, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Tyagi A, Chumas P, Ferrie C: Obstructive hydrocephalus following herpes simplex virus type I encephalitis treated by repeated third ventriculostomy. Pediatr Neurosurg 34:244–246, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Vaicys C, Fried A: Transient hyponatriemia complicated by seizures after endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 43:190–191, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Vandertop WP, Verdaasdonk RM, Van Swol CFP: Laser-assisted neuroendoscopy using a neodymium-yttrium aluminium garnet or diode contact laser with pretreated fiber tips. J Neurosurg 88:82–92, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Vinas FC, Dujovny N, Dujovny M: Microanatomical basis for the third ventriculostomy. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 39:116–121, 1996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Vinas FC, Panigrahi M: Microsurgical anatomy of the Liliequist’s membrane and surrounding neurovascular territories. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 44:104–109, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Voris HC: Third ventriculostomy in treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus in children. Arch Neurol Psychiatr 65:265–271, 1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Vries JK: An endoscopic technique for third ventriculostomy. Surg Neurol 9:165–168, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Wellons JC, Bagley CA, George TM: A simple and safe technique for endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Pediatr Neurosurg 30:219–223, 1999PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Wellons JC, Tubbs RS, Banks JT, Grabb B, Blount JP, Oakes WJ, Grabb PA: Long-term control of hydrocephalus via endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children with tectal plate gliomas. Neurosurgery 51:63–67, 2002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    White JC, Michelsen JJ: Treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus in adults. Surg Gynecol Obstetr 74:99–109, 1942Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Wilcock DJ, Jaspan T, Punt J: CSF flow through third ventriculostomy demonstrated with colour Doppler ultrasonography. Clin Radiol 51:127–129, 1996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Wilcock DJ, Jaspan T, Worthington BS, Punt J: Neuro-endoscopic third ventriculostomy: Evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Radiol 52:50–54, 1997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Willems PW, Vandertop WP, Verdaasdonk RM, van Swol CF, Jansen GH: Contact laser-assisted neuroendoscopy can be performed safely by using pretreated ‘black’ fibre tips: experimental data. Lasers Surg Med 28:324–329, 2001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Wong TT, Lee LS: A method of enlarging the opening of the third ventricular floor for flexible endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Child’s Nerv Syst 12:396–398, 1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Yamakawa K: Instrumentation for neuroendoscopy. In: Cohen AR, Haines S J (eds) Minimally invasive techniques in neurosurgery. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, pp 6–13, 1995Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Yasargil MG: Subarachnoid cisterns. In: Yasargil MD (ed). Microsurgery, vol 1. Thieme, New York, 5–53, 1984Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Zerah M, Garcia-Monaco R, Rodesch G, Terbrugge K, Tardieu M, de Victor D, Lasjaunias P: Hydrodynamics in vein of Galen malformations. Child’s Nerv Syst 3:111–117, 1992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Zidsas de Plantes BG, Crezee P: Transfrontal perforation of the lamina terminalis. Neuroradiology 16:51–53, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Zohdi A, Ibrahim I: Variations in the site and size of third ventriculostomy. Minim Invasive Neurosurg 41:194–197, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Cinalli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric NeurosurgerySantobono-Pausilipon Children’s HospitalNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations