Advertisement

Hydrocephalus and Spinal Tumors

  • Helen Maroulis
  • Wirginia Maixner
  • Enrico Leone
  • Giuseppe Cinalli
Chapter

Abstract

Spinal cord tumors are relatively rare in the pediatric population, comprising only 6%–10% of all central nervous system tumors in this group. Hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension in the context of spinal cord tumors is a rare but well documented association. Since the first report of Nonne in 1900 [126], there have been more than 200 cases reported in the literature. The majority of these were published in the last 20 years, after the advent of CT and MRI. The interest that these rare cases generate is largely due to the intriguing pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for them.

Keywords

Spinal Cord Spinal Tumor Tumor Surgery Spinal Lesion Spinal Cord Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abbott KH: Subarachnoid hemorrhage from an ependymoma arising in the filum terminale. Report of a case. Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 4:127–132, 1939Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adson AW, Dodge HW, Kernohan JW: Communicating hydrocephalus from diffuse meningeal tumor. Report of two cases with increased intracranial pressure treated by use of polyethylene tube. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiat 68:329–338, 1952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Albright L, Byrd RP: Ganglioglioma of the entire spinal cord. Child’s Brain 6:274–280, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Amici R, Borghi GP: Emorragie subaracnoidee da tumori spinali intradurali del tratto lombare. Minerva Neurochir 3:192–198, 1959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ammermann BJ, Smith DR: Papilledema and spinal cord tumors. Surg Neurol 3:55–57, 1975Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    André-Thomas, Ferrand, Schaeffer, De Martel: Syndrome d’hémorragie méningée réalisé par une tumeur de la queue de cheval. Paris Med 77:202–206, 1930Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andreani A, Cantini R, Burchianti M, et al: Papilledema and spinal cord tumors. Ann Oft Clin Ocul 40:901–908, 1984Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andrews AA, Enriques L, Renaudin J, et al: Spinal intramedullary glioblastoma with intracranial seeding: report of a case. Arch Neurol 35:244–245, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arseni C, Maretsis M: Tumors of the lower spinal cord associated with increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. J Neurosurg 27:105–110, 1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Asano N, Kitamura K, Seo Y, et al: Spinal cord glioblastoma multiforme with intracranial dissemination. Case report. Neurol Med Chir 30:489–494, 1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Balhuzien JC, Bots GTAM, Schaberg A, et al: Value of cerebrospinal fluid cytology for the diagnosis of malignancies in the central nervous system. J Neurosurg 48:747–753, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bamford CR, Labadie EL: Reversal of dementia in normotensive hydrocephalus in childhood. J Neurosurg 45:104–107, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barontini F, Casotto A: Su un caso di neoplasia midollare con papilla da stasi. Riv Neurobiol 8:143–151, 1962Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beduschi A, Columella F, Papo I: Ependimoma della cauda con stasi papillare. Chirurgia (Milano) 10:310–315, 1955Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bell WO, Packer RJ, Seigel KR, et al: Leptomeningeal spread of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: report of three cases. J Neurosurg 69:295–300, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bergquist BJ: Intraspinal tumor with hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 22:969–970, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bessiere E, Pouyanne H, Verin P, et al: Stase papillaire hémorragique révélatrice d’un neurinome géant hémorragique du cône terminal. Neurochirurgie 15:224–228, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bland LI, McDonald JV: Hydrocephalus following spinal cord schwannoma resection. Arch Neurol 49:882–885, 1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Borgesen SE, Sorensen SC, Olesen J, et al: Spinal tumors associated with increased intracranial pressure. Report of two cases and a discussion on the pathophysiology. Acta Neurol Scand 56:263–268, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Borghi GP, Corridori F: Papilla da stasi nelle lesioni spinali. Cervello 1:61–70, 1961Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brinker T, Seifert V, Dietz H: Subacute hydrocephalus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: its prevention by intrathecal fibrinolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Neurosurgery 31:306–312, 1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brinker T, Seifert V, Stolke D: Effect of intrathecal fibrinolysis on cerebrospinal fluid absorption after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 74:789–793, 1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Britton J, Marsh H, Kendall B, et al: MRI and hydrocephalus in childhood. Neuroradiology 30:310–314, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buge A, Philippon J, Poisson M, et al: Hydrocephalie au cours d’un ependymome de la queue de cheval avec hémorragie méningée. Nouvelle Presse Medicale vol 3,17:1083–1086, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Buge A, Poisson M, Fohanno D, et al: L’hypertension intracranienne des méningites carcinomateuses. Ann Med Intern 2(128):143–149, 1977Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Burke WJ: A case of cauda equina tumor presenting with stupor and papilledema. Proc Austr Assoc Neurol 9:95–97, 1973Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Butler AB, Mann JD, Maffeo CJ, et al: Mechanisms of cerebrospinal fluid absorption in normal and pathologically altered arachnoid villy. In: Neurobiology of cerebrospinal fluid. Plenum Press, New York, 1983Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Camena D’Almeida MC: Contribution a l’étude des tumeurs intrarachidiennes dorso-lombaires avec oedeme papillaire. A propos de trois cas. Thesis 95, Paris VI, 21/6/1974Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Carlill H, Carling ER: Two cases of disease of the cervical spinal cord. Lancet 1:70–72, 1926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Catz A, Appel I, Reider-Grosswasser I, et al: Late onset papilledema following spinal injury. Case report. Paraplegia 31:131–135, 1993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Caviness J, Tucker M, Pia S, Tam D: Hydrocephalus as a possible early symptom in a child with a spinal cord tumor. Pediatr Neurol 18:169–171, 1998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cecotto C, Mingrino S: Tumore del cono e della cauda con ipertensione endocranica. Acta Chir Italica 15:977–988, 1955Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Celli P, Cervoni L, Morselli E, et al: Spinal ependymomas and papilledema: report of 4 cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg Sci 37:97–102, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chandy M, Babu S: Management of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: Review of 68 patients. Neurology India 47(3) 1999Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chigasaki H, Pennybacker JB: A long follow-up study of 128 cases of intramedullary spinal cord tumours. Neurol Med Chir 10:25–66, 1968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 35a.
    Cinalli G, Sainte-Rose C, Lellouch-Tubiana A, et al: Hydrocephalus associated with intramedullary low-grade gliomas. (Illustrative cases and review of the literature). J Neurosurgery 83:480–485, 1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Civitello LA, Packer RJ, Rorke LB, et al: Leptomeningeal dissemination of low-grade gliomas in childhood. Neurology 38:562–566, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Cohen AR, Wisoff JH, Allen JC, et al: Malignant astrocytomas of the spinal cord. J Neurosurg 70:50–54, 1989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    Coxe WS: Tumors of the spinal canal in children. Am Surg 27:62–73, 1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    D’Andrea F, Constans JP, De Divitiis E: A propos de la carcinomatose lepto-méningée. Neurochirurgie 8:1–11, 1965Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Dardenne G: Hypertension intracranienne et contaminations chimiques et cytologiques du liquide céphalo-rachidien. Acta Neurochir 17:46–70, 1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Dario A, Dorizzi A, Marra A, et al: Lumbar neurinoma associated with hydrocephalus. Case report. J Neurosurg Sci 37:179–182, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Davis TK: Double papilledema caused by blocking of cord at fourth cervical vertebra greatly relieved by operation. Arch Neurol Psychiat (Chicago) 9:255–256, 1923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Dechaume J, Mansuy L, Schott B, et al: Hypertension intracranienne avec oedeme papillaire par tumeur de la queue de cheval. Revue Neurol 109:648–654, 1963Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Diaz Bobillo I, Carrea R, Bordenave A, et al: Observaciones sobra las hidrocephalias: hipertension endocraneana aso-ciada a tumores medulares caudales al primer segmento dorsal. Archos Argent Pediatr 43:245–258, 1955Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    Dietrich J, Fried H, Hommel HJ: Stauungspapille bei neurologisch symptomlosem Caudatumor. Nervenarzt 34:412–414, 1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Djindjian M, Djindjian R, Houdart R, et al: Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intraspinal tumors. Surg Neurol 9:223–229, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Dott NM: A contribution to the surgery of hydrocephalus in childhood. 6th Internat Cong Pediat, Zurich. Summary of communications. Vol II p 194, 1950Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    Eade OE, Urich H: Metastasing gliomas in young subjects. J Pathol 103:245–256, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    Eaton LM, Craig WM: Tumor of the spinal cord: sudden paralysis following lumbar puncture. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin 15:170–172, 1940Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Eden KC: Dissemination of a glioma of the spinal cord in the leptomeninges. Brain 61:298–310, 1938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Eisberg CA, Strauss I: Tumors of the spinal cord which project into the posterior cranial fossa. Arch Neurol Psychiat 21:261–269, 1929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Farmilo RW, Mc Auley DL, Osborne DRS: Papilloedema and spinal cord tumours. NZ Med J 80:100–104, 1974Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Farnarier G, Roger J, Vigouroux R: Localisation médullaire d’un médulloblastome avec syndrome d’hypertension intracranienne. Rev Otoneuroophtalmol 29:490–494, 1957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Farrell K, Hill A, Chuang S: Papilledema in Guillain-Barré syndrome. A case report. Arch Neurol 38:55–57, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Fearnside MR, Adams CBT: Tumors of the cauda equina. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 41:24–31, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Feldman E, Bromfield E, Navia B, et al: Hydrocephalic dementia and spinal cord tumor. Report of a case and review of the literature. Arch Neurol 43:714–718, 1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Fincher EF: Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage in intradural tumors of the lumbar sac. A clinical syndrome. J Neurosurg 8:576–584, 1951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Fortuna A, Celli P, Palma L: Oligodendrogliomas of the spinal cord. Acta Neurochir 52:305–329, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Foschi N, Chiaromoni L, Maricotti M, et al: Idrocefalo comunicante in portatori di processi espansivi midol-lari. A proposito di due casi. Riv Neuroradiol 3:345–350, 1990Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Fox JL, McCullough DC, Green RC: Effect of cerebrospinal fluid shunts on intracranial pressure and on intracranial pressure hydrodynamics. 2. A new technique of pressure measurements: results and concepts. 3. A concept of hydrocephalus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 36:302–312, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Gardner WJ, Spitler DK, Whitten C: Increased intracranial pressure caused by increased protein content in the cerebrospinal fluid. N Engl J Med 250:932–936, 1954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Gelabert M, Bollar A, Paseiro MJ, et al: Hydrocephalus and intraspinal tumor in childhood. Child’s Nerv Syst 6:110–112, 1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Gibberd FB, Ngan H, Swann GF: Hydrocephalus, subarachnoid haemorrhage and ependymomas of the cauda equina. Clin Radiol 23:422–426, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Girard P, Devic M, de Gevigney D: Neuro-papillite oedemateuse aiguë et discopathie cervicale. Récupération de la vision et disparition de l’oedeme par élongation du cou. Le syndrome “névrite optique et acroparesthesie”. J Med Lyon 183:161–168, 1950Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    Glasauer FE: Thoracic and lumbar intraspinal tumor associated with increased intracranial pressure. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 27:451–458, 1964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Goutelle A, Fischer G: Les épendymomes intracraniens et intrarachidiens. Neurochirurgie 23(suppl 1):168–213, 1977Google Scholar
  68. 67.
    Greenfield JG: Two cases of medulloepithelioma (Bailey and Cushing) with special reference to the relative malignancy of this type of tumor. J Pathol Bacteriol 38:11–16, 1938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Guidetti B, Fortuna A: Surgical treatment of intramedullary hemangioblastoma of the spinal cord. J Neurosurg 27:530–540, 1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Halpern L, Feldman S, Peyser E: Subarachnoid hemorrhage with papilledema due to spinal neurofibroma. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 79:138–141, 1958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Hardten DR, Wen DY, Wirtschafter JD, et al: Papilledema and intraspinal lumbar paraganglioma. J Clin Neuro-ophtalmol 12:158–162, 1992Google Scholar
  72. 71.
    Harris P: Chronic progressive communicating hydrocephalus due to protein transudates from brain and spinal tumours. Dev Med Child Neurol 4:270–278, 1962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Hatzidakis GI: To oidema ton optikon telon epi notiaion onkon (in Greek). Nosokom Chron 29:665–688, 1967Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Heathfield KWG, Williams JRB: Carcinomatoses of the meninges: some clinical and pathological aspects. Br Med 11:328–330, 1956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Hely M, Fryer J, Selby G: Intramedullary spinal cord glioma with intracranial seeding. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 48:302–309, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Hollis PH, Malis LI, Zappulla RA: Neurological deterioration after lumbar puncture below complete spinal subarachnoid block. J Neurosurg 64:253–256, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Huber A: Eye symptoms in brain tumors, 2nd edn. Mosby, St Louis, p 126, 1971.Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    Iacob M: Angiome du cône médullaire avec stase papillaire. Neurochirurgie 15:586–590, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Iob I, Andrioli C, Rigobello L, et al: An unusual onset of a spinal cord tumour: subarachnoid bleeding and papilledema. Neurochirurgia 23:112–116, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Ishikawa S, Kajikawa H, Tomihara K, et al: Intraspinal tumor associated with increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. No Shinkei Geka 2:409–413, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Ito U, Tomita H, Yamazaki S, et al: CT findings of leptomeningeal and periventricular dissemination of tumors. Report of four cases. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 88:115–120, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Jennings M, Slatkin N, D’Agelo M, et al: Neoplastic meningitis as the presentation of occult primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Child Neurol 8:306–312 1993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Jentzer A, Kessel K, Bonnant M: Tumeur de la queue de cheval avec stase papillaire. Rev Neurol 87:628–632, 1952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Johnson DL, Schwarz S: Intracranial metastases from malignant spinal cord astrocytoma. J Neurosurg 66:621–625, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Jooma R, Hayward RD: Upward spinal coning: impaction of occult spinal tumours following relief of hydrocephalus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 47:386–390, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Joynt RJ: Mechanism of production of papilledema in the Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neurology 8:8–12, 1958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Kendrick FD, Bonnin JM, Garcia JH: Metastases of a spinal glioblastoma multiforme into an intracranial arachnoid cyst. Neurosurgery 20:780–783, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Kesler A, Manor RS: Papilloedema and hydrocephalus in spinal cord ependymoma. Br J Ophthalmol 78:313–315, 1994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Kolomoitseva IP, Rumyontsev Yu V, Kachkoz IA: Congest optic nerve disk in tumors of the terminal portion of the spinal cord (in Russian). Soviet Med 32:104–108, 1969Google Scholar
  90. 89.
    Kopelson G, Linggood RM: Intramedullary spinal cord astrocytoma versus glioblastoma. Cancer 50:732–735, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Koshu K, Tominaga T, Fujii Y, et al: Quadriparesis after a shunting procedure in a case of cervical spinal neurinoma associated with hydrocephalus: Case report. Neurosurgery 32:669–671, 1993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Koyama M, Hanakita J, Ishikawa J: Thoraco-lumbar spinal tumor associated with papilledema. Neurol Surg (Tokyo) 5:1171–1180, 1977Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Kudo H, Tamaki N, Kim S, et al: Intra-spinal tumors associated with hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 21:726–731, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Kyrielis W: Die Augenveränderungen bei den entzündlichen Erkrankungen des Zentralnervensystem. In: Schieck F, Bruckner A (eds) Kurzes Handbuch der Ophtalmologie, vol 2. Springer, Berlin, pp 779–780, 1931Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    Labauge R, Gros C, Pages M, et al: Hypertension in-tracrânienne et épendymome de la terminaison de la moelle épinière. Rev Neurol (Paris) 140:212–216, 1984Google Scholar
  96. 95.
    Laterza A: La papilla da stasi nelle compressioni del cono e della cauda equina. Riv ONO 34:336–346, 1959Google Scholar
  97. 96.
    Lepoire J, Schmitt J, Barrucand D, et al: Ependymome de la queue de cheval avec stase papillaire. Rev Otoneuroophtalmol 38:265–272, 1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Love JG, Wagener HP, Woltman HW: Tumors of the spinal cord associated with choking of the optic disks. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry 66:171–177, 1951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Lusins J, Kotsilimbas D: Normal-pressure hydrocephalus associated with markedly elevated CSF protein. N Y State J Med Oct–Nov:1151–1152, 1983Google Scholar
  100. 99.
    Luxon LM, Harrison MJC: Subarachnoid hemorrhage and papilledema due to a cervical neurilemmoma. J Neurosurg 48:1015–1018, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Luzecky M, Siegel BA, Coxe WS, et al: Papilledema and communicating hydrocephalus. Arch Neurol 30:487–489, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Mallory FB: The results of the application of special histological methods to the study of tumors. J Exp Med 10:575–593, 1908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Maria BL, Cafferty LL, Singer HS, et al: Diffuse leptomeningeal seeding from a malignant spinal cord astrocytoma in a child with neurofibromatosis. J Neurooncol 4:159–163, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Martins AN, Wiley JK, Myers PW: Dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid and the spinal dura mater. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 35:468–473, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Maurice-Williams RS, Lucey JJ: Raised intracranial pressure due to spinal tumors: 3 rare cases with a probable common mechanism. Br J Surg 62:92–95, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    McAlpine D: Papilloedema caused by a cervical cord tumor. Lancet 14:614–616, 1935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    McCormick PC, Stein BM: Clinical evaluation of the spinal cord and nerve roots. Neurosurg Clin North Am 1:491–493, 1990Google Scholar
  108. 107.
    Menzel J: Stauungspapille bei spinalen Tumoren. Nervenarzt 43:571–573, 1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Messer HD, Brinker RA: Hydrocephalus and dementia complicating spinal tumor. J Neurosurg 53:544–547, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Michel D, Lemercier G, Beau G, et al: Gliomatose méningée et ventriculaire diffuse secondaire à un Oligodendrogliome intramedullaire. Lyon Medical 234,13:37–41, 1975Google Scholar
  111. 110.
    Michowiz SD, Rappaport HZ, Shaked I, et al: Thoracic disc herniation associated with papilledema. J Neurosurg 61:1132–1134, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Miller G, Towfighi J, Page RB: Spinal cord ganglioglioma presenting as hydrocephalus. J Neuro Oncol 9:147–152, 1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Miller TJ, Wang H: Case report: radiologic diagnosis of intracranial and intraspinal subarachnoid metastases from a malignant spinal cord astrocytoma. Md Med J 39:471–473, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Mittal MM, Gupta NC, Sharma ML: Spinal epidural meningioma associated with increased intracranial pressure. Neurology 20:818–820, 1970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Mock A, Levi A, Drake JM: Spinal hemangioblastoma, syrinx, and hydrocephalus in a two-year-old child. Neurosurgery 27(5)799–802, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Morley JB, Reynolds EH: Papilledema and the Landry-Guillain-Barré syndrome. Brain 89:205–222, 1966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Mortara R, Parker JC, Brooks WH: Glioblastoma multiforme of the spinal cord. Surg Neurol 2:115–119, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Nassar SI, Correll JW: Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spinal cord tumors. Neurology 18:87–94, 1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Neau JP, Roualdes G, Bataille B, et al: Hypertension intracrânienne et hydrocéphalie par tumeur médullaire. A propos de trois observations. Neurochirurgie 33:216–219, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Newman EW: Ocular signs of intracranial disease in children and juveniles. A report of forty two cases. Am J Ophthalmol 21:286–292, 1938Google Scholar
  121. 120.
    Newman RP, Schaefer EJ, Thomas CB, et al: Abetal-ipoproteinemia and metastatic spinal cord glioblastoma. Arch Neurol 41:554–556, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    Neyl-Dwyer G: Tentorial block of cerebrospinal fluid associated with a lumbar neurofibroma. Case report. J Neurosurg 38:767–770, 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    Ng HK, Leung C, Boet R, Poon WS: Spinal cord astrocytoma with cranial meningeal metastases. J Clin Neuroscience 8:374–377 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    Nicola GC, Nizzoli V: Increased intracranial pressure and papilledema associated with spinal tumors. Neurochirurgia 12:138–144, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 124.
    Nishida K, Ueda S, Matsumoto K, et al: Cauda equina neurinoma associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 30:258–262, 1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Nishio S, Korosue K, Tateishi J, et al: Ventricular and subarachnoid seeding of intracranial tumors of neuroectodermal origin. A study of 26 consecutive autopsy cases with reference to focal ependymal defect. Clin Neuropath 1:83, 1982Google Scholar
  127. 126.
    Nonne: Ueber einen Fall von intramedullaren ascendirem Sarcom sowie drei Fälle von Zerstörung des Halsmarks. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkrank 83:393–430, 1900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Norstrom CW, Kernohan JW, Love JG: One hundred primary caudal tumors. JAMA 178:1071–1077, 1961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    O’Connell JEA: The subarachnoid dissemination of spinal tumours. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 9:55–62, 1946PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 129.
    Odom GL: Vascular lesions of the spinal cord: malformations, spinal subarachnoid and extradural hemorrhage. Clin Neurosurg 8:196–236, 1962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    Ogasawara H, Kiya K, Kurisu K, et al: Intracranial metastases from a spinal cord primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Case report. Surg Neurol 37:307–312, 1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Ohta K, Gotoh F, Amano T, Obara K: Normal pressure hydrocephalus associated with cauda equina neurinoma. Ann Neurol 27:441–443, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    Oi S, Galicich J: Intracranial metastasis of malignant tumor. The classification of parenchymal type, leptomeningeal type and diffuse type and its clinical significance: clinical manifestations. Neurol Surg 6:29–37, 1978Google Scholar
  134. 133.
    Oi S, Raimondi AJ: Hydrocephalus associated with intraspinal neoplasms in childhood. Am J Dis Child 135:1122–1124, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Paillas JE, Combalbert A, Bille J, et al: Hypertension intracrânienne et stase papillaire par tumeur de la queue de cheval. Presse Med 72:403–404, 1964Google Scholar
  136. 135.
    Perese DM, Slepian A, Nigogosyan G: Postoperative dissemination of astrocytoma of the spinal cord along the ventricles of the brain. A case report. J Neurosurg 16:114–119, 1959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 136.
    Phan T, Krauss W, Fealey R,: Recurrent lumbar ependymomas presenting as headache and communicating hydrocephalus. Mayo Clin Proc 75:850–852, 2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 137.
    Phanthumchinda K, Locharernkul C, Hemachuda T, et al: Increased intracranial pressure associated with spinal cord astrocytoma: a case with CSF dynamic study. J Med Assoc Thai 72:400–403, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 138.
    Philippides D, Buchheit F, Thiebaut JB, et al: Oedème papillaire dans les tumeurs de la queue de cheval. A propos de deux nouveaux cas. Otoneuroophtalmol 44:451–458, 1972Google Scholar
  140. 139.
    Philippon J, Poisson M, Bleibel: Ependymome de la queue de cheval révélé par une hypertension intracrânienne sans dilatation ventriculaire. Une observation. Nouv Presse Med 9:303–304, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Piganiol G, Bille J, Berard M, et al: Tumeurs géantes de la queue de cheval. Neurochirurgie 10:211–229, 1964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 141.
    Pitt MA, Jones AW, Reeve RS, et al: Oligodendroglioma of the fourth ventricle with intracranial and spinal oligodendrogliomatosis: a case report. Br J Neurosurg 6:371–374, 1992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 142.
    Polmeteer FE, Kernohan JW: Meningeal gliomatosis. Arch Neurol Psychiat 57:593–616, 1947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 143.
    Poussaint T, Yousuf N, Barnes P, Anthony D, et al: Cervicomedullary astrocytomas of childhood: clinical and imaging follow-up. Pediatr Radiol 29:662–668, 1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Prasad VSSV, Basha A, Prasad BCM, Raja Reddy D: Intraspinal tumor presenting as hydrocephalus in childhood. Child’s Nerv Syst 10:156–157, 1994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 145.
    Prieto A, Cantu RC: Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with neurofibroma of the cauda equina. Case report. J Neurosurg 27:63–69, 1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 146.
    Purhoit AK, Dinakar I, Sundaram C, et al: Anaplastic astrocytoma of the spinal cord presenting with features of raised intracranial pressure. Child’s Nerv Syst 6:113–115, 1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 147.
    Ramos F, de Toffol B, Aesch B, Jan M: Hydrocephalus and cavernoma of the cauda equina. Neurosurgery 27:139–142, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 148.
    Rau H: Stauungspapille bei spinalen Tumoren. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 99:351–354, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 149.
    Raynor RB: Papilledema associated with tumors of the spinal cord. Neurology 19:700–704, 1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 150.
    Ridsdale L, Moseley I: Thoracolumbar intraspinal tumours presenting features of raised intracranial pressure. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 41:737–745, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 151.
    Rifkinson-Mann S, Wisoff JH, Epstein F: The association of hydrocephalus with intramedullary spinal cord tumors: a series of 25 patients. Neurosurgery 27 749–754, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 152.
    Riley K, Palmer C, Oser A, Paramore C: Spinal cord hamartoma: Case report. Neurosurg 44:1125–1127, 1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 153.
    Rohr H, Hoffmann W: Ruckenmarkstumoren mit Stauungspapille. Nervenarzt 30:391–396, 1959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 154.
    Rossberg C, Litzenberger J: Intramedullares Glioblastoma multiforme mit ungewöhnlicher, intrakranieller Meningeosis neoplastica. Nervenarzt 59:401–404, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Rosset SO: Przypadek guza dolnego odcinka kanalu kre-gowego z tarcza zastoinowa (in Polish). Neur Neurochir Pol 26:599–602, 1976Google Scholar
  157. 156.
    Roth S, Mathai KV, Chandy J: Multiple meningiomas of the spinal canal. J Neurosurg 26:639–640, 1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 157.
    Rovetta P: Idrocefalo ed edema papillare secondari a tumori midollari di basso livello. Arch Neurochir (Firenze) 3:317–325, 1956Google Scholar
  159. 158.
    Rubinstein LJ, Logan WJ: Extraneural metastases in ependymoma of the cauda equina. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 33:763–770, 1970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 159.
    Rudnicki S, Lebkowski J: O tarczy zastoinowej w przypadkach guzow rdzenia (in Polish). Neur Neurochir Psych Pol 1/51:49–54, 1951Google Scholar
  161. 160.
    Russell DS: Observation on the Pathology Of Hydrocephalus. Medical research council. Special report series no 265. His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, pp 112–113, 1949Google Scholar
  162. 161.
    Russell DS, Rubinstein LJ: Pathology of the tumors of the nervous system. Edward Arnold, London, pp 205–206, 1959Google Scholar
  163. 162.
    Russell DS, Rubinstein LJ: Pathology of the tumors of the nervous system, 3rd edn. Edward Arnold, London, pp 252–255, 1971Google Scholar
  164. 163.
    Russell DS, Rubinstein LJ: Pathology of the tumors of the nervous system, 4th edn. Edward Arnold, London, pp 431, 1989Google Scholar
  165. 164.
    Saleh J, Afshar F: Spinal cord astrocytoma with intracranial spread: detection by magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Neurosurg 1:503–508, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 165.
    Saitoh M, Kuwamura K: Report of a case of intracranial metastases from malignant spinal cord astrocytoma (in Japanese). Rinsho Hoshasen 34:249–252, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 166.
    Sarabia M, Millan JM, Escudero L, et al: Intracranial seeding from an intramedullary malignant astrocytoma. Surg Neurol 26:573–576, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 167.
    Sato S, Inaba K, Suematsu K: Spinal cord tumor associated with papilledema. No Shinkei Geka 5:1375–1376, 1977Google Scholar
  169. 168.
    Schijman E, Zuccaro G, Monges JA: Spinal tumors and hydrocephalus. Child’s Brain 8:401–405, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 169.
    Scotti G, Filizzolo F, Scialfa G, et al: Repeated subarachnoid hemorrhages from a cervical meningioma. J Neurosurg 66:779–781, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 170.
    Simonati A, Mazza C, Rizzuto N: An unusual case of meningeal gliomatosis. Acta Neuropathol Suppl VII:97–100, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 171.
    Sloof JL, Kernohan JW, Mc Carty CS: Primary intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord and filum terminale. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 255, 1964Google Scholar
  173. 172.
    Smith JAR, Northcroft GB: Lumbar ependymoma. Br J Clin Prac 28:220–222, 1974Google Scholar
  174. 173.
    Sullivan RL, Reeves AG: Normal cerebrospinal fluid protein, increased intracranial pressure, and the Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol 1:108–109, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 174.
    Suzuki S, Ishii M, Ottomo M, et al: Changes in the subarachnoid space after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in the dog: scanning electron microscopic observation. Acta Neurochir 39:1–14, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 175.
    Takara E, Ide M, Yamamoto M, et al: A case of the intracranial and spinal dissemination of primary spinal glioma. No Shinkei Geka 13:301–305, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 176.
    Tanaka K, Waga S, Shimosaka S: Papilledema and spinal cord tumors. Surg Neurol 29:462–466, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 177.
    Tashiro K, Tachibaba S, Tsuru M: Clinicopathological studies of spinal cord neoplasms with disseminating intracranial metastases possibly producing akinetic mutism (in Japanese). No To Shinkei 28:1311–1318, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 178.
    Taylor J, Collier J: The occurrence of optic neuritis in lesions of the spinal cord. Injury, tumor, myelitis. An account of twelve cases and one autopsy. Brain 25:532–553, 1901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 179.
    Teng P, Wagner JH, Buxbaum MW: Giant ependymoma of the spinal cord associated with papilledema. Arch Neurol 2:657–662, 1960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 180.
    Toso V: Diffusioni metastatiche alle leptomeningi. Acta Neurol 22:366–376, 1967Google Scholar
  182. 181.
    Toulemonde V, Labrune P, Sainte Rose C, et al: Hypertension intracrânienne intermittente révélatrice d’une tumeur de la moelle cervicale. Arch Fr Pediatr 46:667–669, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 182.
    Tourniaire D, Sankei R, Pagès M: Hydrocéphalie à pression normale et neurinome lombaire. Rev Neurol (Paris). 149:802–804, 1993Google Scholar
  184. 183.
    Ucar S, Florez G, Garcia J: Increased intracranial pressure associated with spinal cord tumors. Neurochirurgia 19:265–268, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 184.
    Ulbricht W: Ruckenmarkstumoren mit Stauungspapille. Acta Neurochir 15:138–149, 1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 185.
    Wang AM, Haykal HA: Thoracic spinal meningioma associated with hydrocephalic dementia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 8:383–384, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 186.
    Webb JH, Craig WMcK, Kernohan JW: Intraspinal neoplasms in the cervical region. J Neurosurg 10:360–366, 1953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 187.
    Weickmann F: Caudatumor und Stauungspapille, ein Beitrag zur Frage der Liquorzirkulation und Resorption. Nervenarzt 25:65–68, 1954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 188.
    Weiman CG, Mc Dowell FH, Plum F: Papilledema in poliomyelitis. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatr 66:722–727, 1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 189.
    Wiersma D: Clinical and anatomical experiences in two cases of spinal cord tumor. Acta Psychiatr Neurol 3:63–91, 1928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 190.
    Winkelmann VH: Hydrozephalus und Stauungspapille bei Kaudatumoren. Zentralbl Neurochir 36:85–92, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 191.
    Wober G, Jellinger K: Intramedullares Oligodendrogliom mit meningozerebraler Aussaat. Acta Neurochir 35:261–269, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 192.
    Woltman HW, Kernohan JW, Adson AW, et al: Intramedullary tumors of spinal cord and gliomas of intradural portion of filum terminale. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatr 65:378–395, 1951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 193.
    Yamagami T, KikKuchi H, Higashi K, et al: Intracranial metastasis of a spinal cord astrocytoma. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 30:69–73, 1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 194.
    Yarnitsky D, Honigman S, Hemli JA, et al: Normal pressure hydrocephalus associated with spinal cord tumor. Acta Neurol Scand 76:302–305, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 195.
    Zarski S: Przypadek guza ogona konskiego przebiagaja-cy z tarcza zastoinowa (in Polish). Neur Neurochir Pol 6/22:153–156, 1972Google Scholar
  197. 196.
    Zavala LM, Adler JL, Greene CS, et al: Hydrocephalus and intraspinal tumor. Neurosurgery 22:751–754, 1988PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 197.
    Zeitlin R: Über einen Fall von Extramedullärer Rückenmarksgeschwülst mit Stauungspapille. Dissertation, Hamburg, 1937Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen Maroulis
    • 1
  • Wirginia Maixner
    • 2
  • Enrico Leone
    • 3
  • Giuseppe Cinalli
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryRoyal Children’s HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Departement of NeurosurgeryRoyal Children’s HospitalParkvilleAustralia
  3. 3.Department of NeuroradiologySantobono-Pausilipon Children’s HospitalNaplesItaly
  4. 4.Department of Pediatric NeurosurgerySantobono-Pausilipon Children’s HospitalNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations