Advertisement

Acute Monosymptomatic Optic Neuritis: Potential Clues to Early Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

  • D. I. Kaufman
Part of the Topics in Neuroscience book series (TOPNEURO)

Abstract

The optic nerve is a 50 mm by 4.5 mm white matter tract of the central nervous system (CNS). Its physiology and response to therapy can be precisely quantified by a number of common, easily available, neuro-ophthalmological techniques. Detection of an early, subtle, optic neuropathy is relatively easy compared with many of the difficult-to-document sensory or even motor complaints in early multiple sclerosis (MS).

Keywords

Multiple Sclerosis Optic Neuritis Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Optic Neuropathy Cerebral Spinal Fluid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rizzo JF, Lessell S (1988) Risk of developing multiple sclerosis after uncomplicated optic neuritis. A long-term prospective study. Neurology 38:185–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ebers GC (1985) Optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 42:702–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kurtzke JF (1985) Optic neuritis or multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 42:704–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Francis DA, Compston DAS, Batchelor, McDonald WI (1987) A reassessment of the risk of multiple sclerosis developing in patients with optic neuritis after extended follow up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 50:758–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sandberg-Wolheim M, Bynke H, Cronqvist S et al (1990) A long-term prospective study of optic neuritis: evaluation of risk factors. Ann Neurol 27:386–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Perkin GD, Rose FC (1979) Optic neuritis and its differential diagnosis. Oxford, New York, pp 226–248Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nikoskelainen E (1975) Later course and prognosis of optic neuritis. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 53:273–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hutchinson WM (1976) Acute optic neuritis and the prognosis for multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 39:283–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hely MA, McManis PG, Doran TJ, Walsh JC, McLeod JG (1986) Acute optic neuritis: a prospective study of risk factors for multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 498:1125–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wakakura M, Ishikawa S, Oono S et al (1995) Incidence of acute idiopathic optic neuritis and its therapy in Japan. Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial Multicenter Cooperative Research Group (ONMRG). Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 99(1):93–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beck RW et al (1988) The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Arch Ophthalmol 106:1051–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Optic Neuritis Study Group (1991) The clinical profile of acute optic neuritis: Experience of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Arch Ophthalmol 109:1673–1678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wakakura M, Minei-Higa R, Oono Shinji et al (1999) Baseline features of idiopathic optic neuritis as determined by a multi center treatment trial in Japan. Jpn J Ophthalmol 43:127–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bradley WG, Whittey WM (1967) Acute optic neuritis: its clinical features and their relation to prognosis for recovery of vision. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 30:531–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rizzo JF, Lessell S (1991) Optic neuritis and ischemic optic neuropathy. Overlapping clinical profiles. Arch Ophthalmol 109:1668–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kupersmith MJ, Nelson JI, Seiple WH, Carr RE, Weiss PA (1983) The 20/20 eye in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 33:1015–1020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ashworth B, Aspinall PA, Mitchell JD (1990) Visual function in multiple sclerosis. Doc Ophthalmologica 73:209–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martinelli V, Comi G, Filippi M et al (1991) Paraclinical tests in acute-onset optic neuritis, basal data and results of a short follow up. Acta Neurol Scand 84:231–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morrissey SP, Miller DH, Kendall BE et al (1993) The significance of brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis. A 5-year follow-up study. Brain 116:135–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Beck RW, Arrington J, Murtagh FR, Kaufman DI et al (1993) Brain MRI in acute optic neuritis experience of the optic neuritis study group. Arch Neurol 8:841–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cole SR, Beck RW, Moke PS, Kaufman DI, Tourtellotte WW, for the Optic Neuritis Study Group (1998) The predicative value of CSF oligoclonal banding for MS 5 years after optic neuritis. Neurology 51:885–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frederiksen JL, Larsson GBW, Henriksen O, Elesen J (1998) Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in patients with acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis. Acta Neurol Scand 80:512–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jacobs L, Munschauer FE, Kaba SE (1991) Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging in optic neuritis. Neurology 41:15–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Glaser GH, Merritt HH (1952) Effects of corticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisone on disorders of the nervous system. JAMA 148:898–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Quinn JR, Wolfson WQ (1952) Improved results from individualized intensive hormonal treatment in certain eye diseases reported to respond poorly to ACTH or cortisone. Univ Mich Med Bull 18:1–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kazdan P, Kennedy RJ (1955) Intravenous treatment of optic neuritis. Arch Ophthalmol 53:700–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rucker CW (1956) Optic neuritis of unknown etiology. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 60:93–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Giles CL, Isaacson JD (1961) The treatment of acute optic neuritis. Arch Ophthalmol 66:52–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Oksala A (1966) Cortisone therapy in fasciculitis optica. Ophthalmologica 148:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rawson MD, Liversedge LA, Goldfarb G, McGill BA (1966) Treatment of acute retrobulbar neuritis with corticotrophin. Lancet II:1044–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rawson MD, Liversedge LA (1969) Treatment of retrobulbar neuritis with corticotrophin. Lancet II:222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bowden AN, Bowden PMA, Friedman AI et al (1974) A trial of corticotrophin gelatin injection in acute optic neuritis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 37:869–873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gould ES, Bird AC, Leaver PK, McDonald WI (1977) Treatment of optic neuritis by retrobulbar injection of triamcinolone. BMJ 1:1485–1497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mehdorn E (1990) Megadose steroid therapy in papillitis with progressive visual loss (German). Klin Monatsbl Augenheilk 197:506–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    van Engelen BG, Hommes OR, Pinckers A et al (1992) Improved vision after intravenous immunoglobulin in stable demyelinating optic neuritis. Ann Neurol 32(6):834–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sanders EA, Volkers AC, van der Poel JC, van Lith GH (1986) Estimation of visual function after optic neuritis; a comparison of clinical tests. Br J Ophthalmol 70:918–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fleishman JA, Beck RW, Linares OA, Klein JW (1987) Deficits in visual function after resolution of optic neuritis. Ophthalmology 94:1029–1035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Budning AS, Gans M, Filer R, Greenberg S (1991) Visual function after optic neuritis: a preliminary study. Can J Ophthalmol 26:18–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Trauzettel-Klosinski S, Aulhorn E, Diener HD et al (1991) Effect of prednisolone on the course of optic neuritis. Results of a double-blind study (in German). Fortschr der Ophthalmol 88:490–501Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Herishanu YO, Badarna S, Sarov B et al (1989) A possible harmful late effect of methylprednisolone therapy on a time cluster of optic neuritis. Acta Neurol Scand 80:569–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Spoor TC, Rockwell DL (1988) Treatment of optic neuritis with intravenous mega-dose corticosteroid. A consecutive series. Ophthalmology 95:131–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Farris BK, Pickard DJ (1990) Bilateral postinfectious optic neuritis and intravenous steroid therapy in children. Ophthalmology 97:339–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rollinson RD (1977) Bilateral optic neuritis in childhood. Med J Aust 9:50–51Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gerling J, Kommerell G (1992) Short term effect of megadose steroid therapy in optic neuritis. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 201:375–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Perry HD, Mallen FJ, Grodin RW, Cossari AJ (1979) Reversible blindness in optic neuritis associated with influenza vaccination. Ann Ophthalmol 11:545–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hepler RS (1976) Management of optic neuritis. Sury Ophthalmol 20:350–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dinning WJ (1976) Steroids and the eye-indications and complications. Postgrad Med J 52:634–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nano HM, Perez HA, Beraza H, Grayeb E (1970) Optic neuritis. Treatment with hydrocortisone injections. Arch Oftalmol B Aries 45:322–328Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Huang SY, Zeng YC (1985) Clinical observations on treatment of disorders of the optic nerve by acupuncture. J Tradit Chin Med 5:187–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ershkovich IG, Gol’dfel’d-NG, Koza RI (1969) The value of glycerin and retrobulbar injections of hydrocortisone in the treatment of neuritis of the optic nerve. Oftalmol Zh 24:322–328Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schmidt D (1983) Treatment of optic neuritis. Bull Soc Belge Ophthalmol 208:93–96Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hallermann W, Haller P, Kruger C, Schiemann M, Patzold U (1983) Progress of optic neuritis with and without corticosteroid treatment. Findings in a long term investigation with static perimetry. Fortschr Ophthalmol 80:30–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Toczolowski J, Lewandowska-Furmanik M, Stelmasiak Z, Wozniak D, Chmiel M (1995) Treatment of acute optic neuritis with large doses of corticosteroids. Klin Oczna 97:122–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Koraszewska-Matuszewska B, Samochowiec-Donocik E, Rynkiewicz E (1995) Optic neuritis in children and adolescents. Klin Oczna 97:207–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Alejandro PM, Castanon-Gonzalez JA, Miranda-Ruiz R et al (1994) Comparative treatment of acute optic neuritis with boluses of intravenous methylprednisolone or oral prednisone. Gac Med Mex 130:227–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kapoor R, Miller DH, Jones SJ et al (1998) Effects of intravenous methylprednisolone on outcome in MRI-based prognostic subgroups in acute optic neuritis. Neurology 50:230–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Trauzettel-Klosinski S, Axmann D, Dienerhe HD (1993) Tubingen Study on optic neuritis treatment-a prospective, randomized and controlled trial. Clin Visual Sci 8:385–394Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wakakura M, Mashimo K, Oono Shinji et al (1999) Multi center clinical trial for evaluating methylprednisolone pulse treatment of idiopathic optic neuritis in Japan. Jpn J Ophthalmol 43:133–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sellebjerg F, Nielsen HS, Frederiksen JL, Olesen J (1999) A randomized, controlled trial of oral high-dose methylprednisolone in acute optic neuritis. Neurology 52:1479–1484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Soderstrom M, Jin Y-P, Hillert J, Link H (1998) Optic neuritis. Prognosis for multiple sclerosis from MRI, CSF, and HLA findings. Neurology 50:708–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Beck RW, Cleary PA, Anderson MA et al (1992) A randomized, controlled trial of corticosteroid in the treatment of acute optic neuritis. New Eng J Med 326:581–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kaufman DI, Trobe JD, Eggenberger ER, Whitaker JN (2000) Practice parameter: the role of costicosteroids in the management of acute monosymptomatica optic neuritis. Neurology 54:2039–2044PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Beck RW et al (1992) The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial: implications for clinical practice. Arch Ophthalmol 110:331–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Beck RW et al (1992) Corticosteroid treatment of optic neuritis: a need to change treatment practices. Neurology 42:1133–1135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Beck RW, Kupersmith MJ, Cleary PA et al (1993) Fellow eye abnormalities in acute unilateral optic neuritis experience of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Ophthalmology 100:691–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Keltner JL, Johnson CA, Spurr JO et al (1993) Baseline visual field profile of optic neuritis. The experience of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Arch Ophthalmol 111:231–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cleary PA, Beck RW, Anderson MM et al (1993) Design, methods and conduct of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Controlled Clin Trials 14:123–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Keltner JL, Johnson CA, Beck RW et al (1993) Quality control functions of the Visual Field Reading Center (VFRC) for The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT). Controlled Clin Trials 14:143–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Beck RW, Cleary PA et al (1993) Recovery from severe visual loss in optic neuritis. Arch Ophthalmol 111:300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Beck RW, Diehl L, Cleary PA et al (1993) The Pelli-Robson Letter Chart: normative data for young adults. Clin Vis Sci 8:207–210Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chrousos GA, Kattah JC, Beck RW et al (1993) Side effects of glucocorticoid treatment: experience of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. JAMA 269:2110–2112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Beck RW, Cleary PA et al (1993) Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial: one-year follow-up results. Arch Ophthalmol 111:773–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Beck RW, Cleary PA, Trobe JD, Kaufman DI et al (1993) The effect of corticosteroid for acute optic neuritis on the subsequent development of multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 329:1764–1769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Keltner JL, Johnson CA, Spurr JO et al (1994) Visual field profile of optic neuritis: one-year follow-up in the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Arch Ophthalmol 112:946–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Beck RW, Cleary PA, Backlund JC et al (1994) The course of visual recovery after optic neuritis. Experience of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Ophthalmology 101:1771–1778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kupersmith MJ, Kaufman D, Paty DW et al (1994) Megadose corticosteroid in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 44:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Beck RW (1995) The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial: three-year follow-up results. Arch Ophthalmol 113:136–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Beck RW, Trobe JD (1995) The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial: putting the results in perspective. J Neuroophthalmol 15:131–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rolak LA, Beck RW, Paty DW, Tourtellotte WW, Whitaker JN, Rudick RA, Optic Neuritis Study Group (1996) Cerebrospinal fluid in acute optic neuritis: experience of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Neurology 46:368–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Optic Neuritis Study Group (1997) The 5 year risk of MS after optic neuritis. Neurology 49:1404–1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial Manual of Operations (1990) National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va, NTIS accession no. PB90–195728Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Optic Neuritis Teatment Group (1997) Visual function 5 years after optic neuritis: experience of the optic neuritis treatment trial. Arch Ophthalmol 115:1545–1552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Goodin DS (1993) Corticosteroids and optic neuritis (letter). Neurology 43:632–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Goodkin DE, Rudick RA, Kinkel R, Ransohoff RM (1993) Corticosteroids and optic neuritis (letter). Neurology 43:632–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Beck RW, Optic Neuritis Study Group (1993) Corticosteroids and optic neuritis (reply). Neurology 43:633–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Goodin DS (1993) Treatment of optic neuritis (letter). Neurology 43:2731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Beck RW, Optic Neuritis Study Group (1993) Treatment of optic neuritis (reply). Neurology 43:2731Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cox TA, Woolson RF (1981) Steroid treatment of optic neuritis. Arch Ophthalmol 99:338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Jacobs LD, Beck RW, Simon JH et al (2000) Intramuscular interferon beta-1-a therapy initiated during a first demyelinating event in multiple sclerois. N Eng J Med 343:898–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Comi G, Filippi M, Barkhof F et al (2001) Effects of early interferon treatment on conversion to definite multiple sclerosis: a randomised study. Lancet 357:1576–1582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    OWIMS Study Group (1991) Evidence of interferon B-la dose response in relapsing remitting MS. The OWIMS Study. Neurology 53:679–686Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Freedman MS and the Prisms Study Group (2000) Prisms 4-year results: evidence of clinical dose effect of interferon betal-a in relapsing MS (abstract LBN.001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. I. Kaufman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations