Soluble VCAM-1 Release Indicates Inflammatory Blood-Brain Barrier Pathology and Further Modulates Adhesion

  • B. A. Kallmann
  • V. Hummel
  • K. V. Toyka
  • P. Rieckmann
Part of the Topics in Neuroscience book series (TOPNEURO)


Cellular adhesion molecules, like VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, and their counter-receptors are involved in the adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells in areas of inflammation. They are also a prerequisite for the transmigration process of immune cells into the inflamed tissue, e.g., across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases [1]. Adhesion molecules can be induced by proinflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α), on various cell types, e.g., endothelial cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes [2].


Multiple Sclerosis Blood Brain Barrier Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Multiple Sclerosis Patient Cellular Adhesion Molecule 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Kallmann
  • V. Hummel
  • K. V. Toyka
  • P. Rieckmann

There are no affiliations available

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