Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Multiple Sclerosis: Cortical Reorganisation and Recovery

  • H. Reddy
  • D. L. Arnold
  • P. M. Matthews
Part of the Topics in Neuroscience book series (TOPNEURO)


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised pathologically by inflammatory focal demyelination at multiple sites in the central nervous system that recur over time. Clinically it is associated with recurrent attacks from which patients show good recovery in the early stages of the illness, usually followed by a chronic phase of progressive functional deterioration. Recent studies have postulated that the mechanism of injury in multiple sclerosis leading to chronic disability is axonal damage rather than the demyelination itself [1]. As has been shown in patients with focal ischaemic disease [2–5] or brain tumours [6], the axonal injury of MS may be expected to be associated with cortical reorganisation.


Multiple Sclerosis Motor Cortex Expand Disability Status Scale Optic Neuritis Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Matthews PM, De Stefano N, Narayanan S et al (1998) Putting magnetic resonance0 spectroscopy studies in context: axonal damage and disability in multiple sclerosis. Semin Neurol 18: 327–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chollet F, Weiller C (1994) Imaging recovery of function following brain injury. Curr Opin Neurobiol 4: 226–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cao Y, D’Olhaberriague L, Vikingstad EM et al (1998) Pilot study of functional MRI to assess cerebral activation of motor function after poststroke hemiparesis. Stroke 29: 112–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cramer SC, Nelles G, Benson RR et al (1997) A functional MRI study of subjects recovered from hemiparetic stroke. Stroke 28: 2518–2527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weiller C, Ramsay SC, Wise RJ et al (1993) Individual patterns of functional reorganization in the human cerebral cortex after capsular infarction. Ann Neurol 33: 181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Seitz RJ, Huang Y, Knorr U et al (1995) Large-scale plasticity of the human motor cortex. Neuroreport 6: 742–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Stefano N, Matthews PM, Arnold DL (1995) Reversible decreases in N-acetylaspartate after acute brain injury. Magn Reson Med 34: 721–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matthews PM, Clare S, Adcock J (1999) Functional magnetic resonance imaging: clinical applications and potential. J Inherit Metab Dis 22:337–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ogawa S, Lee TM, Kay AR, Tank DW (1990) Brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast dependent on blood oxygenation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 9868–9872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buckner RL, Bandettini PA, O’Craven KM et al (1996) Detection of cortical activation0 during averaged single trials of a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 14878–14883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rosen BR, Buckner RL, Dale AM (1998) Event-related functional MRI: past, present, and future. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 773–780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim SG, Ashe J, Georgopoulos AP et al (1993) Functional imaging of human motor cortex at high magnetic field. J Neurophysiol 69: 297–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ploghaus A, Tracey I, Gati JS et al (1999) Dissociating pain from its anticipation in the human brain. Science 284: 1979–1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Benson RR, FitzGerald DB, LeSueur LL et al (1999) Language dominance determined by whole brain functional MRI in patients with brain lesions. Neurology 52: 798–809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Talairach J, Tournoux P (1988) Coplanar stereotactic atlas of the human brain: 3-dimensional system, an approach to cerebral imaging. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Friston KJ, Fletcher P, Josephs O et al (1998) Event-related fMRI: characterizing differential responses. Neuroimage 7: 30–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Poline JB, Worsley KJ, Evans AC, Friston KJ (1997) Combining spatial extent and peak intensity to test for activations in functional imaging. Neuroimage 5: 83–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Friston KJ, Josephs O, Rees G, Turner R (1998) Nonlinear event-related responses in fMRI. Magn Reson Med 39: 41–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cohen MS, DuBois RM (1999) Stability repeatability, and the expression of signal magnitude in functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 10: 33–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blinkenberg M, Jensen CV, Holm S et al (1999) A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS. Neurology 53: 149–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sun X, Tanaka M, Kondo S et al (1998) Clinical significance of reduced cerebral metabolism in multiple sclerosis: a combined PET and MRI study. Ann Nucl Med 12: 89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Roelcke U, Kappos L, Lechner-Scott J et al (1997) Reduced glucose metabolism in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia of multiple sclerosis patients with fatigue: a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study. Neurology 48: 1566–1571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Simmons ML, Frondoza CG, Coyle JT (1991) Immunocytochemical localization of Nacetyl-aspartate with monoclonal antibodies. Neuroscience 45: 37–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    DeStefano N, Matthews PM, Fu L et al (1998) Axonal damage correlates with disability in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: results of a longitudinal MR spectroscopy study. Brain 121: 1469–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fu L, Matthews PM, De Stefano N et al (1998) Imaging axonal damage of normalappearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Brain 121: 103–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Reddy H, Narayanan S, Matthews PM et al (2000) Relating axonal injury to functional recovery in MS. Neurology 54: 236–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yousry TA, Berry I, Filippi M (1998) Functional magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 64 (Suppl 1):S85–S87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Seil FJ (1997) Recovery and repair issues after stroke from the scientific perspective. Curr Opin Neurol 10: 49–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee M, Reddy H, Johansen-Berg H et al (2000) The motor cortex shows adaptive functional changes to brain injury from multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 47: 606–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Werring DJ, Bullmore ET, Toosy AT et al (2000) Recovery from optic neuritis is associated with a change in the distribution of cerebral response to visual stimulation: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 68:441–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wexler BE, Fulbright RK, Lacadie CM et al (1997) An fMRI study of the human cortical motor system response to increasing functional demands. Magn Reson Imaging 15: 385–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Reddy
  • D. L. Arnold
  • P. M. Matthews

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations